Found 15 article(s) for author 'Economic Development'

Deals and Development – The Political Dynamics of Growth Episodes

Deals and Development: The Political Dynamics of Growth Episodes. Lant Pritchett, 2017, Book, “Provides a novel framework for understanding how growth episodes emerge and when growth is maintained for a sustained period. Draws on country specific examples to ground theory in practice. Explains actionable methods of intervention to improve a country’s chance at achieving transformative economic growth. Uses a clear layout and unified approach to help the reader find the information they need. An open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence.Link

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On the Measurement of Upstreamness and Downstreamness in Global Value Chains

On the Measurement of Upstreamness and Downstreamness in Global Value Chains. Pol Antras, October 30, 2017, Paper, “This paper offers four contributions to the empirical literature on global value chains (GVCs). First, we provide a succinct overview of several measures developed to capture the upstreamness or downstreamness of industries and countries in GVCs. Second, we employ data from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to document the empirical evolution of these measures over the period 1995-2011; in doing so, we highlight salient patterns related to countries’ GVC positioning – as well as some puzzling correlations – that emerge from the data. Third, we develop a theoretical framework – which builds on Caliendo and Parro’s (2015) variant of the Eaton and Kortum (2002) model – that provides a structural interpretation of all the entries of the WIOD in a given year.Link

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The IMF, Gender Equality and Labour

The IMF, Gender Equality and Labour. Martha Chen, October 2017, Book, “Recent research from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) recognizes that macroeconomic policies can help to redress gender inequalities by creating more fiscal space for key public investments in infrastructure, education and health. Such investments reduce the time women spend on domestic chores and caring for their families, giving them more opportunities to engage in paid work. For women home-based workers, who produce goods and services from their own homes, basic infrastructure services make their homes more productive workplaces.” Link

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Political institutions and economic growth in Africa’s ‘Renaissance’

Political institutions and economic growth in Africa’s ‘Renaissance’. Robert H. Bates, October 11, 2017, Paper, “In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, many African states replaced authoritarian political regimes with competitive electoral systems; the economies of many also began to grow, some for the first time in decades. We argue that democratic reform led to economic growth, as did Acemoglu, Naidu, Restrepo and Robinson in an earlier paper. Our approach differs from theirs in that while we to seek to identify a causal relationship between democracy and development, we build our analysis around the qualitative accounts of regional specialists and the reasoning of political economists. Where others test for the existence of a causal account, we test for the existence of specific casual mechanisms.Link

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The Recent Growth Boom in Developing Economies: A Structural-Change Perspective

The Recent Growth Boom in Developing Economies: A Structural-Change Perspective. Dani Rodrick, January 2017, Paper, “Growth has accelerated in a wide range of developing countries over the last couple of decades, resulting in an extraordinary period of convergence with the advanced economies. We analyze this experience from the lens of structural change – the reallocation of labor from low- to high-productivity sectors. Patterns of structural change differ greatly in the recent growth experience. In contrast to the East Asian experience, none of the recent growth accelerations in Latin America, Africa, or South Asia was driven by rapid industrialization. Beyond that, we document that recent growth accelerations were based on either rapid within-sector labor productivity growth (Latin America) or growth-increasing structural change (Africa), but rarely both at the same time.Link

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Doing Bad by Doing Good? Theft and Abuse by Lenders in the Microfinance Markets of Uganda

Doing Bad by Doing Good? Theft and Abuse by Lenders in the Microfinance Markets of Uganda. Catherine Duggan, June 2016, Paper. “Microcredit transactions in developing countries create risks for borrowers that are routinely overlooked in the literature. This paper argues that common microfinance-lending methodologies that allow lenders to collateralize loans and unilaterally collect this security create opportunities for malicious lenders to steal from clients in good standing. In places where any lender can simply call itself a “microfinance institution” (MFI), opportunistic lenders can use the halo effect associated with microfinance to encourage borrowers to make themselves unusually vulnerable to theft. Evidence of these abuses can be seen in a case study of Uganda, where theft and fraud by a small number of microfinance institutions created a large-scale crisis and contributed to a precipitous decline in trust in the financial sector as a whole.Link

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Open Access to Infrastructure Networks: The Experience of Railroads

Open Access to Infrastructure Networks: The Experience of Railroads. Jose Gomez-Ibanez, June 1, 2016, Paper, “Many countries have restructured their railroads and other network industries to require that network providers grant access to independent companies. The potential benefit is to introduce competition among the access users, while the potential cost is to reduce coordination between the network provider and the access users. The experiences of railroads in Australia, Europe, and North America caution that coordination costs are likely to be high when the access provider/user interface is technically complex, the network is close to capacity, the access users are heterogeneous, there is little reciprocity between providers and users, and the access grants are broad.Link

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The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments

The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments. Roland Fryer, March 2016, Paper. “Randomized field experiments designed to better understand the production of human capital have increased exponentially over the past several decades. This chapter summarizes what we have learned about various partial derivatives of the human capital production function, what important partial derivatives are left to be estimated, and what – together – our collective efforts have taught us about how to produce human capital in developed countries. The chapter concludes with a back of the envelope simulation of how much of the racial wage gap in America might be accounted for if human capital policy focused on best practices gleaned from randomized field experiments.Link

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Economic Development: Using Analytical Frameworks for Policy Design

Economic Development: Using Analytical Frameworks for Policy Design. Asim Khwaja, Rohini Pande, 2016, Syllabus. “This is a semester-long course that provides analytical frameworks to aid the design and implementation of development policy. The course will start by examining different diagnostic approaches for policy design and then provide a deep-dive analysis into diagnostics and policy design in the areas of education, finance, industrial policy, environment and climate change and governance.Link

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State Capacity, Local Governance, and Economic Development in Vietnam

State Capacity, Local Governance, and Economic Development in Vietnam. Melissa Dell, May 2015, Paper. “There has been a large divergence in economic prosperity between Northeast and Southeast Asia since the mid-20th century, and the governance organizations and norms of Asian societies plausibly help explain this divergence. This study examines the impacts of different historical governance norms on development using Vietnam as a laboratory. Northern Vietnam (Dai Viet) was ruled by a bureaucratic state inherited from China. It governed through a centralized, competitively selected bureaucracy, and the village was…Link

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