Found 17 article(s) for author 'Development'

Structural Transformation: A competitiveness-based view

Structural Transformation: A competitiveness-based view. Christian Ketels, 2017, “The research on competitiveness aims to enhance our understanding of the drivers of prosperity differences across locations, focusing especially on aspects that can inform policy to support higher levels of prosperity (Porter, 1990; Porter, 2000; Delgado et al., 2013). This chapter outlines key elements of the competitiveness framework, and discusses how it relates to the idea of structural transformation.Link

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Africa’s Prospects for Enjoying a Demographic Dividend

Africa’s Prospects for Enjoying a Demographic Dividend. David Bloom, August 2016, “We assess Africa’s prospects for enjoying a demographic dividend. While fertility rates and dependency ratios in Africa remain high, they have started to decline. According to UN projections, they will fall further in the coming decades such that by the mid-21st century the ratio of the working-age to dependent population will be greater than in Asia, Europe, and Northern America. This projection suggests Africa has considerable potential to enjoy a demographic dividend. Whether and when it actually materializes, and also its magnitude, hinges on policies and institutions in key realms that include macroeconomic management, human capital, trade, governance, and labor and capital markets. Given strong complementarities among these areas, coordinated policies will likely be most effective in generating the momentum needed to pull Africa’s economies out of a development trap.Link

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Women, Democracy, and the State

Women, Democracy, and the State. Jocelyn Viterna, 2016, Book Chapter, “What role do states and democracies play in development? Although many scholars have addressed this question, fewer have done so with respect to women. In this chapter, we argue that renewed attention to the relationship between states and women would …Link

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Transnational Social Protection: Setting the Agenda

Transnational Social Protection: Setting the Agenda, Jocelyn Viterna, August 2016, Paper, “In todays’ world, more than 220 million people live in a country that is not their own.  Nevertheless, the provision of social welfare is primarily carried out by nations. How are people on the move protected and provided for in the contemporary global context? Have institutional sources of social welfare begun to cross borders to meet the needs of individuals who live transnational lives? This introductory paper proposes a transnational social protection (TSP) research agenda designed to map the kinds of protections that exist for people on the move, determine how these protections travel across borders, and analyze variations in access to these protections. The paper defines TSP; introduces the heuristic tool of a “resource environment” to map and analyze variations in TSP over time, through space, and across individuals; and provides empirical examples demonstrating the centrality of TSP for scholars of states, social welfare, development, and migration.Link

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Sustainability as a Social Movement

Sustainability as a Social Movement. Robert Eccles, June 2016, Paper. “If you think about sustainable development-the classic definition from the Brundtland Commission is meeting the needs of the current generation without sacrificing the needs of future generations-the private sector has a fundamental role to play. Investors are starting to incorporate these in their decision making, but there’s a lot of greenwashing. […]portfolio managers think this stuff is important and asset owners put pressure on asset managers, you won’t start to extend the time frame. Creating a Sustainable Society We wouldn’t have the capital markets today without financial accounting standards and reporting requirements.Link

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Gains from Foreign Direct Investment: Macro and Micro Approaches World Bank’s ABCDE Conference

Gains from Foreign Direct Investment: Macro and Micro Approaches World Bank’s ABCDE Conference. Laura Alfaro, March 23, 2016, Paper. “This paper discussed the importance of an “integrated approach” to the study of the effects of FDI on host countries. Macro-level work that examines countries at different stages of development and institutional capacity is needed to surface the role of local conditions and absorptive capacities; micro-level work, that is firm-level data in developed as well as developing nations, to understand the mechanisms that impart substance to the anticipated benefits; and theoretical work to guide the analyses. The paper summarizes likely motives for foreign direct investment and potential effects of FDI on local economies as well as recent findings from the macro literature on the role of complementarities between FDI and local policies, conditions, and institutions and summarizes new efforts to understand the micro mechanisms and channels by which host countries can benefit from multinational activity, within and between firm productivity increases.Link

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Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China.

Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China. Josh Lerner, March 1, 2015, Paper, “Using a difference-in-difference approach, we study how intellectual property right (IPR) protection affects innovation in China in the years around the privatizations of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Innovation increases after SOE privatizations, and this increase is larger in cities with strong IPR protection. Our results support theoretical arguments that IPR protection strengthens firms’ incentives to innovate and that private sector firms are more sensitive to IPR protection than SOEs.Link

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The Personnel Economics of the State

The Personnel Economics of the State. Rohini Pande, December 2015, Paper. “Governments play a central role in facilitating economic development. Yet while economists have long emphasized the importance of government quality, historically they have paid less attention to the internal workings of the state and the individuals who provide the public services. This paper reviews a nascent but growing body of field experiments that explores the personnel economics of the state. To place the experimental findings in context, we begin by documenting some stylized facts about how public sector employment differs from that in the private sector. In particular, we show that in most countries throughout the world, public sector employees enjoy a significant wage premium over their private sector counterparts. Moreover, this wage gap is largest among low-income countries, which tends to be precisely where governance issues are most severe … Link

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Economists’ declaration on universal health coverage

Economists’ declaration on universal health coverage. Lawrence Summers, September 17, 2015, Opinion, “With the UN set to launch the bold sustainable development agenda this autumn, this is a crucial moment for global leaders to reflect on the financial investments to maximise progress by 2030. As an input into deliberations around those investments, the signatories to this declaration, economists from 44 countries, call on global policy makers to prioritise a pro-poor pathway to universal health coverage (UHC) as an essential pillar of development.Link

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New Directions for the Sociology of Development

New Directions for the Sociology of Development. Jocelyn Viterna, August 2015, Paper. “At the close of World War II, ‘development’ began to evolve along two paths. On the first path, scholars aimed to generate theoretical understandings of social change, especially at the national level (development studies). On the second path, policy makers in governments and other development-focused organizations initiated actions to promote positive social change, especially in poor or war-torn nations (development practice). In this article, we review the recent trajectory of ‘development’ in sociology, paying close attention to the intersections between development studies and development practice. Through explicit comparisons to economics and political science, we demonstrate how the prominence of development sociology has varied historically in relation to its proposed policy prescriptions.Link

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