Found 18 article(s) for author 'David Cutler'

Health and Taxes

Health and Taxes. David Cutler, October 25, 2016, Paper, “Viewing health care through the lens of a social issue prompts such questions as: What policies would best improve the population’s health? How can report cards be used to improve the quality of surgery? Where are there opportunities for additional disease prevention? The questions here are intricate and detailed. Some of the issues are clinical, and advice from physicians is actively sought and welcomed. For example, no one would develop a pay-for-performance system for surgeons without extensive involvement of the relevant surgical societies.Link

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Understanding the Socioeconomic Gradient in Disability Insurance Receipt

Understanding the Socioeconomic Gradient in Disability Insurance Receipt. David Cutler, August 3, 2016, Paper, “There is a well-known socioeconomic gradient in disability insurance receipt. As Figure 1 shows, 9.0% of people aged 50-52 with a high school degree or less receive Social Security Disability Insurance or Supplemental Security Insurance, compared to 4.3% of those with some college or more.  As people age, the gap between the more and less educated expands. Between the low 50s and the low 60s, SSDI/SSI receipt rises by 6.2 percentage points among the less educated, compared to only 2.4 percentage points among the better educated. The result is that one in six people with a high school degree or less is receiving SSDI/SSI by age 62, compared to one in fifteen people with some college education. Understanding why disability insurance receipt is so tilted to the less educated is key to evaluating the economic importance of disability insurance as well as forecasting future trends.Link

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Economic Conditions and Mortality: Evidence from 200 Years of Data

Economic Conditions and Mortality: Evidence from 200 Years of Data. David Cutler, March 29, 2016, Paper. “Using historical mortality data covering over 100 birth cohorts in 32 countries, this paper examines the short- and long- term effects of economic conditions on mortality. We confirm two seemingly contradictory patterns documented before. Poor economic conditions while growing up (from birth to age 25) significantly raise adult mortality. Yet contemporary downturns appear to decrease mortality. In addition we document some new findings. Poor economic conditions in adolescence have the largest adverse effect on adult mortality.Link

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Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods

Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods. David Cutler, December 2, 2015, Paper. “The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit−cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit−cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers’ observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers’ preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit−cost analyses in the near term.Link

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Payment Reform Is About to Become a Reality

Payment Reform Is About to Become a Reality. David Cutler, April 28, 2015, Opinion. “The US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) continues to take major steps toward transforming the payment system for Medicare. After hinting about a new payment reform plan in September (http://bit.ly/17cQ2mz), HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell put out more specifics in late January. Secretary Burwell’s proposal calls for 30% of Medicare payments to be based on non–fee-for-service models by the end of 2016, and 50% to be so by the end of 2018. By comparison, such payments did not exist in 2011…” Link

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When Does Education Matter? The Protective Effect of Education for Cohorts Graduating in Bad Times

When Does Education Matter? The Protective Effect of Education for Cohorts Graduating in Bad Times. David Cutler, May 1, 2014, Paper. “Using Eurobarometer data, we document large variation across European countries in education gradients in income, self-reported health, life satisfaction, obesity, smoking and drinking. While this variation has been documented previously, the reasons why the effect of education on income, health and health behaviors varies is not well understood. We build on previous literature documenting that cohorts graduating in bad times have lower wages…” Link

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Emergency Department Profits Are Likely To Continue As The Affordable Care Act Expands Coverage

Emergency Department Profits Are Likely To Continue As The Affordable Care Act Expands Coverage. David Cutler, May 2014, Paper. “To better understand the financial viability of hospital emergency departments (EDs), we created national estimates of the cost to hospitals of providing ED care and the associated hospital revenue using hospital financial reports and patient claims data from 2009. We then estimated the effect the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have on the future profitability of providing ED care. We estimated that hospital revenue from ED care exceeded costs for that care by $6.1 billion in 2009…” Link verified August 21, 2014

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Health Care Spending — A Giant Slain or Sleeping?

Health Care Spending — A Giant Slain or Sleeping? David Cutler, December 26, 2013, Paper. “The health care system is confronting a shocking surprise: slow growth in cost. According to the U.S. government actuaries, real spending for health care increased a scant 0.8% per person in 2012, slightly less than the real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In contrast, since 1960, spending has increased an average of 2.3 percentage points more than GDP growth (Fig. 1). The yearly gap between increases in health spending and GDP growth explains why national health expenditures jumped from 5% of the GDP…” Link verified August 21, 2014

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Who Pays for Public Employee Health Costs?

Who Pays for Public Employee Health Costs? David Cutler, October 2013, Paper. “We analyze the incidence of public-employee health benefits. Because these benefits are negotiated through the political process, relevant labor market institutions deviate significantly from the competitive, private-sector benchmark. Empirically, we find that roughly 15 percent of the cost of recent benefit growth was passed onto school district employees through reductions in wages and salaries. Strong teachers’ unions were associated with relatively strong linkages between benefit growth and growth in total compensation. We further find…” Link verified August 21, 2014

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