Found 15 article(s) for author 'Competition'

Open Access to Infrastructure Networks: The Experience of Railroads

Open Access to Infrastructure Networks: The Experience of Railroads. Jose Gomez-Ibanez, June 1, 2016, Paper, “Many countries have restructured their railroads and other network industries to require that network providers grant access to independent companies. The potential benefit is to introduce competition among the access users, while the potential cost is to reduce coordination between the network provider and the access users. The experiences of railroads in Australia, Europe, and North America caution that coordination costs are likely to be high when the access provider/user interface is technically complex, the network is close to capacity, the access users are heterogeneous, there is little reciprocity between providers and users, and the access grants are broad.Link

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Creativity Under Fire: The Effects of Competition on Creative Production

Creativity Under Fire: The Effects of Competition on Creative Production. Daniel Gross, August 1, 2015, Paper. “Though fundamental to innovation and essential to numerous occupations and industries, the creative act has received limited attention in economics and has historically proven difficult to study. This paper studies the incentive effects of competition on individuals’ creative production. Using a sample of commercial logo design competitions, and a novel, content-based measure of originality, I find that competition has an inverted-U effect on creativity: some competition is necessary to induce agents to explore radically novel…” Link

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Lessons from Schumpeterian Growth Theory

Lessons from Schumpeterian Growth Theory. Philippe Aghion, May 2015, Paper. “By operationalizing the notion of creative destruction, Schumpeterian growth theory generates distinctive predictions on important microeconomic aspects of the growth process (competition, firm dynamics, firm size distribution, cross-firm and cross-sector reallocation) which can be confronted using rich micro data. In this process the theory helps reconcile growth with industrial organization and development economics.” Link

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Patent Rights, Product Market Reforms, and Innovation

Patent Rights, Product Market Reforms, and Innovation. Philippe Aghion, May 24, 2014, Paper. “In this paper, we provide empirical evidence to the effect that strong patent rights may complement competition-increasing product market reforms in inducing innovation. First, we find that the product market reform induced by the large-scale internal market reform of the European Union in 1992 enhanced innovation in industries of countries where patent rights are strong, but not in industries of countries where patent rights are weak. Second, the positive innovation response to…” Link verified September 8, 2014

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Profits and Economic Development

Profits and Economic Development. Eric Werker, April 3, 2014, Paper. “Are rents, or excess profits, good for development? Using industry-level manufacturing data, this paper demonstrates a negative effect of rents, measured by the mark-up ratio, on productivity growth. The negative effect is strongest in poor countries, suggesting that high profits stymie economic development rather than enable it. Consistent with the rent-seeking mechanism of our model, we find that high rents are associated with a slower reduction in tariffs. A country’s average mark-up in manufacturing is a strong negative predictor of…” Link Verified October 11, 2014

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Globalization, Structural Change, and Productivity Growth, with an Update on Africa

Globalization, Structural Change, and Productivity Growth, with an Update on Africa. Dani Rodrik, October 2013, Paper. “One of the earliest and most central insights of the literature on economic development is that development entails structural change. The countries that manage to pull out of poverty and get richer are those that are able to diversify away from agriculture and other traditional products. As labor and other resources move from agriculture into modern economic activities, overall productivity rises and incomes expand...” Link

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Customer-Driven Misconduct: How Competition Corrupts Business Practices

Customer-Driven Misconduct: How Competition Corrupts Business Practices. Michael Toffel, August 2013, Paper. “Competition among firms yields many benefits but can also encourage firms to engage in corrupt or unethical activities. We argue that competition can lead organizations to provide services that customers demand but that violate government regulations, especially when price competition is restricted. Using 28 million vehicle emissions tests from more than 11,000 facilities, we show that increased competition is associated with greater inspection leniency…” Link Verified October 11, 2014

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European Integration: Meeting the Competitiveness Challenge

European Integration: Meeting the Competitiveness Challenge. Michael E. Porter, Christian H.M. Ketels, July 25, 2013, Case. “The case discusses the origins and development of the European Integration process from the post-war period up to 2007, focusing particularly on the efforts of the Lisbon-agenda under way since 2000 to enhance Europe’s competitiveness. It discusses the different policy areas that have been approached at the European level over time, and provides background on the architecture of European institutions…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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Firm Competitiveness and Detection of Bribery

Firm Competitiveness and Detection of Bribery. George Serafeim, July 2013, Paper. “Using survey data collected from senior corporate executives around the world I analyze how detection of bribery impacts firm competitiveness. The data suggest that the most significant impact is on employee morale, followed by business relations and reputation, and then regulatory relations. I find that who initiated the bribery act, how it was detected, and how the firm responded after detection are all associated with the impact on a firm’s reputation, business relations, regulatory relations, and employee morale…” Link Verified October 11, 2014

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Clusters and the New Growth Path for Europe

Clusters and the New Growth Path for Europe. Christian H.M. Ketels, July 2013, Paper. “This paper outlines elements of a conceptual framework that clarifies the role that clusters play relative to government policies and actions of individual companies in supporting the emergence of “High Road” strategies that lead to better New Growth Path–related outcomes. It then focuses on creating a new set of data that can start shedding light on the empirical relevance of this framework. The first main section of the paper draws on a new set of employment and wage data across European clusters …” Link Verified October 12, 2014

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