The Impacts of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility: Childhood Exposure E↵ects and County-Level Estimates. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, May 2015, Paper, “We characterize the e↵ects of neighborhoods on children’s earnings and other outcomes in adulthood by studying more than five million families who move across counties in the U.S. Our analysis consists of two parts. In the first part, we present quasi-experimental evidence that neighborhoods effect intergenerational mobility through childhood exposure effects. In particular, the outcomes of children whose families move to a better neighborhood – as measured by the outcomes of children already living there – improve linearly in proportion to the time they spend growing up in that area. We distinguish the causal e↵ects of neighborhoods from confounding factors by comparing the outcomes of siblings within families, studying moves triggered by displacement shocks, and exploiting sharp variation in predicted place e↵ects across birth cohorts, genders, and quantiles.Link