The Impact of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility II: County-Level Estimate. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, 2016, Paper, “We characterize the effects of neighborhoods on children’s earnings and other outcomes in adulthood by studying more than five million families who move across counties in the U.S. We identify the causal effect of growing up in every county in the U.S. by estimating a fixed effects model identified from families who move across counties with children of different ages. We use these estimates to quantify the size of place effects, construct optimal forecasts of the causal effect for each place, and study the characteristics of places that cause higher (and lower) economic outcomes.Link