Found 303 article(s) in category 'Trade Policy'

Product Mix and Firm Productivity Responses to Trade Competition

Product Mix and Firm Productivity Responses to Trade Competition. Marc Melitz, July 2016, Paper, “We document how demand shocks in export markets lead French multi-product exporters to re-allocate the mix of products sold in those destinations. In response to positive demand shocks, those French firms skew their export sales towards their best performing products; and also extend the range of products sold to that market. We develop a theoretical model of multi-product firms and derive the specific demand and cost conditions needed to generate these product-mix reallocations. Our theoretical model highlights how the increased competition from demand shocks in export markets – and the induced product mix reallocations – induce productivity changes within the firm. We then empirically test for this connection between the demand shocks and the productivity of multi-product firms exporting to those destinations. We find that the effect of those demand shocks on productivity are substantial – and explain an important share of aggregate productivity fluctuations for French manufacturing.Link

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The ‘China, Inc.’ Challenge to Global Trade Governance

The ‘China, Inc.’ Challenge to Global Trade Governance. Mark Wu, May 13, 2016, Paper, “In the past decade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has adjudicated over forty disputes involving China and other powerful economies. These cases are often trumpeted as a sign of the enduring strength of the trade regime and the efficacy of international law in managing geopolitical tensions associated with China’s rise. This Article suggests that this positive assessment obfuscates dangers lurking on the horizon. It explains why the rise of China presents a major challenge to the multilateral trade regime. At the heart of this challenge is the fact that China’s economic structure is sui generis — having evolved in a manner largely unforeseen by those negotiating WTO treaty law.Link

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Fairness and Free Trade

Fairness and Free Trade. Dani Rodrik, May 12, 2016, Opinion. “The global trade system faces an important turning point at the end of this year, one that was postponed when China joined the World Trade Organization almost 15 years ago. The United States and the European Union must decide whether they will begin to treat China as a “market economy” in their trade policies. Unfortunately, even as the battle escalates over the course of this year, the terms of the choice ensure that nothing will be done to address the global trade regime’s deeper flaws.Link

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The Economy Is Rigged, and Other Campaign Myths

The Economy Is Rigged, and Other Campaign Myths. N. Gregory Mankiw, May 6, 2016, Opinion, “If you want to learn about the economy, there are good and bad places to go. Probably the worst source of reliable information is the current crop of presidential candidates. Dissembling and exaggeration are no strangers to politics, but this year’s campaigns have been particularly egregious.Link

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Firms’ Preferences over Multidimensional Trade Policies: Global Production Chains, Investment Protection and Dispute Settlement Mechanisms

Firms’ Preferences over Multidimensional Trade Policies: Global Production Chains, Investment Protection and Dispute Settlement Mechanisms. Dustin Tingley, April 16, 2016, Paper. “In addition to the conventional focus on market access, recent trade agreements have included investment protection, dispute settlement mechanisms, and escape clauses that enhance flexibility. We argue that preferences over these newly salient dimensions of trade policy will vary by firm, not by industry, and that a firm’s preferences will depend on its insertion into global production networks. To estimate a firm’s preferences over multiple policy dimensions, we conduct a conjoint experiment on firms in Costa Rica, a middle-income democracy in the developing world. We find that investment protection is the most salient trade policy dimension for firms who are most deeply integrated into global production networks. In addition, strong dispute settlement procedures are most valued by exporters who are not central to global supply networks. Furthermore, we find few differences across industries, thus challenging the conventional focus on inter-industry distinctions in the trade policy literature.Link

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Understanding Agricultural Price Range Systems as Trade Restraints: Peru – Agricultural Products

Understanding Agricultural Price Range Systems as Trade Restraints: Peru – Agricultural Products. Mark Wu, April 2016, Paper. “An agricultural price range system (PRS) aims to stabilize local prices in an open economy via the use of import duties that vary with international prices. The policy is inherently distortionary and welfare-reducing for a small open economy, at least according to the canonical economic model. We offer an explanation for why a government concerned with national welfare may nevertheless implement such a policy when faced with risk aversion and imperfect insurance markets. We also highlight open questions arising out of the Peru – Agricultural Products dispute for the WTO’s Appellate Body to address in order to clarify how a PRS consistent with WTO rules could be designed.Link

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Adjustment and Income Distribution Impacts on the TPP

Adjustment and Income Distribution Impacts on the TPP. Robert Lawrence, April 2016, Book Chapter. “Like all free trade agreements, the Trans-Pacifi c Partnership (TPP) will yield gains to the economy in general but force difficult adjustments on some workers and businesses. Peter A. Petri and Michael G. Plummer (2016) find that the agreement will benefi t the United States as a whole, raise real wages of both skilled and unskilled workers, and increase the real return to capital. It will, however, hurt some workers. In particular, some workers will be displaced by imports and lose income from being unemployed or earning less in their new jobs.Link

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Gains from Foreign Direct Investment: Macro and Micro Approaches World Bank’s ABCDE Conference

Gains from Foreign Direct Investment: Macro and Micro Approaches World Bank’s ABCDE Conference. Laura Alfaro, March 23, 2016, Paper. “This paper discussed the importance of an “integrated approach” to the study of the effects of FDI on host countries. Macro-level work that examines countries at different stages of development and institutional capacity is needed to surface the role of local conditions and absorptive capacities; micro-level work, that is firm-level data in developed as well as developing nations, to understand the mechanisms that impart substance to the anticipated benefits; and theoretical work to guide the analyses. The paper summarizes likely motives for foreign direct investment and potential effects of FDI on local economies as well as recent findings from the macro literature on the role of complementarities between FDI and local policies, conditions, and institutions and summarizes new efforts to understand the micro mechanisms and channels by which host countries can benefit from multinational activity, within and between firm productivity increases.Link

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Silk-Road Type Projects: Lessons From Some Historical Examples

Silk-Road Type Projects: Lessons From Some Historical Examples. Robert Z. Lawrence, 2016, Book Chapter. “China’s Belt and Road Initiative is a project of truly historic proportions. If successful, it has the potential to deliver significant benefits to China and its neighbors. To realize this potential, both China and the recipient nations must overcome numerous institutional challenges. This chapter draws on a variety of historical experiences to explore the nature of these challenges. It does so not to argue that history will repeat itself or to imply that the project replicates the precise conditions of the examples chosen but to reflect on what history tells us about both the potential and pitfalls that have been associated with such endeavors in the past.Link

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