Found 280 article(s) in category 'Trade Policy'

Trade and Agricultural Disease: Import Restrictions in the Wake of the India – Agricultural Products Dispute

Trade and Agricultural Disease: Import Restrictions in the Wake of the India – Agricultural Products Dispute. Mark Wu, December 14, 2016, Paper, “Trade in agricultural products raises sensitivities, particularly when imports originate from a trading partner experiencing an outbreak of some type of agricultural disease. In this article, we explain why despite the negative externalities associated with diseased imports, an importing country is generally not permitted to ban such imports outright under WTO law. Rather, it is allowed to do so only under fairly specific circumstances. We also highlight how the recent India – Agricultural Products ruling contributes to the jurisprudence of two issues concerning the SPS Agreement: the interpretation of international standards, and the relationship between the risk assessment and scientific evidence requirements.Link

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Don’t Cry Over Dead Trade Agreements

Don’t Cry Over Dead Trade Agreements. Dani Rodrik, December 8, 2016, Opinion, “The seven decades since the end of World War II were an era of trade agreements. The world’s major economies were in a perpetual state of trade negotiations, concluding two major global multilateral deals: the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the treaty establishing the World Trade Organization. In addition, more than 500 bilateral and regional trade agreements were signed – the vast majority of them since the WTO replaced the GATT in 1995.Link

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Exploring the Uncharted Export: an Analysis of Tourism-Related Foreign Expenditure with International Spend Data

Exploring the Uncharted Export: an Analysis of Tourism-Related Foreign Expenditure with International Spend Data. Ricardo Hausmann, 2016, Paper, “Tourism is one of the most important economic activities in the world: for many countries it represents the single largest product in their export basket. However, it is a product difficult to chart: “exporters” of tourism do not ship it abroad, but they welcome importers inside the country. Current research uses social accounting matrices and general equilibrium models, but the standard industry classifications they use make it hard to identify which domestic industries cater to foreign visitors. In this paper, we make use of open source data and of anonymized and aggregated transaction data giving us insights about the spend behavior of foreigners inside two countries, Colombia and the Netherlands, to inform our research.Link

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Economic tools to promote transparency and comparability in the Paris Agreement

Economic tools to promote transparency and comparability in the Paris Agreement. Joseph Aldy, 2016, Paper, “The Paris Agreement culminates a six-year transition toward an international climate policy architecture based on parties submitting national pledges every five years. An important policy task will be to assess and compare these contributions. We use four integrated assessment models to produce metrics of Paris Agreement pledges, and show differentiated effort across countries: wealthier countries pledge to undertake greater emission reductions with higher costs. The pledges fall in the lower end of the distributions of the social cost of carbon (SCC) and the cost-minimizing path to limiting warming to 2â °C, suggesting insufficient global ambition in light of leaders’ climate goals. Countries’ marginal abatement costs vary by two orders of magnitude, illustrating that large efficiency gains are available through joint mitigation efforts and/or carbon price coordination.Link

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Progress and Confusion: The State of Macroeconomic Policy

Progress and Confusion: The State of Macroeconomic Policy. Kenneth Rogoff, Lawrence Summers, 2016, Book, “What will economic policy look like once the global financial crisis is finally over? Will it resume the pre-crisis consensus, or will it be forced to contend with a post-crisis “new normal”? Have we made progress in addressing these issues, or does confusion remain? In April of 2015, the International Monetary Fund gathered leading economists, both academics and policymakers, to address the shape of future macroeconomic policy. This book is the result, with prominent figures—including Ben Bernanke, Lawrence Summers, and Paul Volcker—offering essays that address topics that range from the measurement of systemic risk to foreign exchange intervention.Link

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Making US Trade and Investment Policies Work for Global Development

Making US Trade and Investment Policies Work for Global Development. Robert Lawrence, , Paper, “In an interconnected world, sustainable and inclusive economic growth in less developed countries helps to secure US interests and values. Economic development nurtures peaceful societies, reduces refugee flows, ameliorates humanitarian crises, expands markets for US exports, and safeguards human rights and other core US aspirations. Well-designed trade and investment policies are indispensable tools to achieve these objectives.Link

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Transparency, Policy Surveillance, and the Comparison of Mitigation Efforts

Transparency, Policy Surveillance, and the Comparison of Mitigation Efforts. Joseph Aldy, November 2016, Paper, “This paper synthesizes the work in a research program focused on the transparency and comparability of mitigation efforts in multilateral climate change policy. We take as our starting point the emerging international architecture, which creates demand for practical mechanisms to compare domestic efforts to mitigate global climate change. How do countries decide whether and to what degree pledges by their peers—often expressed in different forms that stymie obvious apples-to-apples comparison—are sufficient to justify their own actions now and more ambitious actions in the future? We describe a number of desirable features of metrics that might be used for ex ante comparisons of proposed pledges and ex post assessments of subsequent actions delivering on those pledges.Link

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Harnessing the Best of Globalization

Harnessing the Best of Globalization. William Kerr, Fall 2016, Paper, “Executives in large companies are seeking to harness globalization in new ways when launching their ventures — and for good reason. The opportunities for global businesses are expanding thanks to rapidly emerging product markets, the worldwide race for talent, and the widening impact of digitization. Moreover, success stories such as Airbnb Inc., Uber Technologies Inc., and Rocket Internet SE are spurring the imaginations of new entrepreneurs while highlighting the vulnerability of many traditional businesses.Link

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Multinational Firms, Value Chains, and Vertical Integration

Multinational Firms, Value Chains, and Vertical Integration. Laura Alfaro, 2016, Paper, “In recent decades there has been a very rapid increase in flows of goods and capital between countries and between firms, driven by technological progress and falling cross-border restrictions. The rising ability to retain or outsource various production stages within firms and across country boundaries has fueled fragmentation of production and the emergence of global value chains. Cross-border production, investment, and trade in final and intermediate goods by multinational corporations (MNCs) are key drivers of this phenomenon.Link

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