Found 573 article(s) in category 'Regulation'

Why Diversity Programs Fail

Why Diversity Programs Fail. Frank Dobbin, August 2016, Paper, “Businesses started caring a lot more about diversity after a series of high-profile lawsuits rocked the financial industry. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Morgan Stanley shelled out $54 million—and Smith Barney and Merrill Lynch more than $100 million each—to settle sex discrimination claims. In 2007, Morgan was back at the table, facing a new class action, which cost the company $46 million. In 2013, Bank of America Merrill Lynch settled a race discrimination suit for $160 million. Cases like these brought Merrill’s total 15-year payout to nearly half a billion dollars.Link

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Shareholder Activism on Sustainability Issues

Shareholder Activism on Sustainability Issues. George Serafeim, July 25, 2016, Paper, “A growing number of investors are now engaging companies on environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues, in addition to traditional executive compensation, shareholder rights, and board of directors’ topics. In 2013, nearly 40 percent of all shareholder proposals submitted to Russell 3000 companies related to ESG issues, representing a 60 percent increase since 2003 (Proxy Voting Analytics, 2014). The topics of ESG proposals are diverse, ranging from disclosure of political contributions and compliance with human rights policies, to the adoption of a climate change policy. The purpose of this paper is to test the effect that ESG proposals have on firms’ subsequent ESG performance and market valuation.Link

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Would Reducing the US Corporate Tax Rate Increase Employment in the United States?

Would Reducing the US Corporate Tax Rate Increase Employment in the United States? Martin Feldstein, 2016, Book Chapter. “Reducing the corporate tax rate and changing the rules for taxing the foreign earnings of US corporations would have many favorable effects, including an increase of employment in the United States.  First, a brief description of the current corporate tax arrangements. The federal government now imposes a statutory tax rate on corporate profits of 35 percent, the highest tax rate among all the industrial countries of the world. In addition, the individual states levy corporate tax rates that average 9 percent. Since that state tax is a deductible expense in calculating income subject to the federal corporate tax, the combined tax rate is approximately 40 percent.Link

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Borrowing Requirements, Credit Access, and Adverse Selection: Evidence from Kenya

Borrowing Requirements, Credit Access, and Adverse Selection: Evidence from Kenya. Michael Kremer, July 18, 2016, Paper, “We examine the potential of asset-collateralized loans in low-income country credit markets. When a Kenyan dairy cooperative exogenously replaced high down payments and joint liability requirements with loans collateralized by the asset itself – a large water tank- loan take-up increased from 2.4% to 41.9%. In contrast, substituting joint liability requirements for deposit requirements had no impact on loan take up. There were no repossessions among farmers allowed to collateralize 75% of their loans, and a 0.7% repossession rate among those offered 96% asset collateralization. A Karlan-Zinman test based on waiving borrowing requirements ex post finds evidence of adverse selection with very low deposit requirements, but not of moral hazard.Link

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Attention to Distribution in U.S. Regulatory Analyses

Attention to Distribution in U.S. Regulatory Analyses. Lisa Robinson, James Hammitt, Richard Zeckhauser, Summer 2016, Paper, “Scholars, decision makers, interest groups, and other concerned citizens are often interested in the distribution of regulatory impacts. To what extent does a regulation benefit or harm those who have high or low incomes, are in good or poor health, are more or less vulnerable to disease, or are very young or very old? Does the regulation disproportionately affect members of minority or other disadvantaged groups? Determining whether and how to address these questions raises thorny normative issues about how to weigh the impacts on different groups as well as the choice of policy instruments. Yet to address these normative concerns, we first need data on impacts—data that are rarely readily available.Link

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Bank Stress Tests Won’t Save Us From Financial Crisis

Bank Stress Tests Won’t Save Us From Financial Crisis. Hal Scott, June 23, 2016, Video. “It’s a big week for Wall Street. Minutes before polls close in the U.K. on the Brexit vote Thursday, the Fed is set to release its first round of stress-test results, followed by a second round of results next Wednesday. The tests are used to determine whether or not the largest banks could weather a major crisis, such as Britain leaving the EU, and whether they can boost their dividend payout to shareholders.Link

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No More Dizzying Earnings Adjustments

No More Dizzying Earnings Adjustments. Robert Pozen, June 21, 2016, Opinion. “Whether Microsoft’s $26.2 billion purchase of LinkedIn makes sense might depend on where you look. Glancing at LinkedIn’s press release for the full year 2015, you will see a prominent projection for “adjusted” earnings this year of $950 million. Yet if you closely read the press release and its appendix, you can figure out that the company’s projected 2016 earnings under GAAP, the generally accepted accounting principles required in securities filings, are minus $240 million.Link

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How EU Overreach Pushed Britain Out

How EU Overreach Pushed Britain Out. Martin Feldstein, June 18, 2016, Opinion. “A thoughtful British friend of mine said to me a few days before the United Kingdom’s “Brexit” referendum that he would vote for Remain because of his concern about the economic uncertainty that would follow if the UK left the European Union. But he added that he would not have favored Britain’s decision to join the EU back in 1973 had he known then how the EU would evolve.Link

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Meet the Oligarchs: Business Legitimacy, State Capacity and Taxation

Meet the Oligarchs: Business Legitimacy, State Capacity and Taxation. Rafael Di Tella, June 11, 2016, Paper, “We analyze the role of people’s beliefs about the rich in the determination of public policy. A question we study is the desirability of government-private sector meetings, a variable we argue is connected to State capacity. Survey respondents primed with negative views about business leaders want fewer of these meetings, as well as higher taxes to the top 1% and more regulation. We also study how these effects change when subjects are primed with negative views about government. A model helps interpret these findings.Link

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Publish the Secret Rules for Banks’ Living Wills

Publish the Secret Rules for Banks’ Living Wills. Hal Scott, June 10, 2016, Opinion. “The Federal Reserve and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. recently determined that five of America’s largest banks do not have credible plans to go through bankruptcy without relying on extraordinary government support. If these five firms— J.P. Morgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, Bank of New York Mellon and State Street—can’t develop “living wills” that satisfy regulators, then the Dodd-Frank Act authorizes the government to break them up as soon as 2018.Link

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