Found 287 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

Tethered Lives: A Couple-Based Perspective on the Consequences of Parenthood for Time Use, Occupation, and Wages

Tethered Lives: A Couple-Based Perspective on the Consequences of Parenthood for Time Use, Occupation, and Wages. Alexandra Killewald, March 2016, Paper. “Prior research on parenthood effects has typically used single-sex models and estimated average effects. By contrast, we estimate population-level variability in partners’ changes in housework hours, paid work hours, occupation traits, and wages after becoming parents, and we explore whether one partner’s adjustment offsets or supplements the other’s. We find tradeoffs between spouses on paid work adjustments to parenthood, but complementarity in adjustments to housework hours, occupation traits, and wages. The effect of parenthood on wives’ behaviors is larger and more variable than husbands’ in every domain.Link

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The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments

The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments. Roland Fryer, March 2016, Paper. “Randomized field experiments designed to better understand the production of human capital have increased exponentially over the past several decades. This chapter summarizes what we have learned about various partial derivatives of the human capital production function, what important partial derivatives are left to be estimated, and what – together – our collective efforts have taught us about how to produce human capital in developed countries. The chapter concludes with a back of the envelope simulation of how much of the racial wage gap in America might be accounted for if human capital policy focused on best practices gleaned from randomized field experiments.Link

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Housing and Employment Insecurity among the Working Poor

Housing and Employment Insecurity among the Working Poor. Matthew Desmond, February 2016, Paper. “While social scientists have documented severe consequences of job loss, scant research investigates why workers lose their jobs. We explore the role of housing insecurity in actuating employment insecurity, investigating if workers who involuntarily lose their homes subsequently involuntarily lose their jobs. Analyzing novel survey data of predominately low-income working renters, we find the likelihood of being laid off to be between 11 and 22 percentage points higher for workers who experienced a preceding forced move, compared to observationally identical workers who did not. Our findings suggest that initiatives promoting housing stability could promote employment stability.Link

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Dealing with Long Term Deficits

Dealing with Long Term Deficits. Martin Feldstein, January 2016, Paper. “The United States economy is now in good shape. We are essentially at full employment with the overall unemployment rate at 5.0 percent and the unemployment rate among college graduates at a very low 2.5 percent. The near zero overall rate of inflation is distorted by the sharp decline in energy prices. The core CPI inflation rate that excludes the prices of energy and food has increased by 2.0 percent over the past 12 months. The growth of demand in 2016 will be limited by the absence of excess capacity in the economy rather than by a lack of demand. Household spending will support real domestic demand growth of two percent or more because real earnings are rising at two percent, house prices are increasing in real terms, and employment prospects are good …” Link

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The Evolution of Work

The Evolution of Work. Dani Rodrik, December 9, 2015, Opinion. “In mid-December, the United Nations will launch the latest of its annual landmark Human Development Reports. This year’s report focuses on the nature of work: how the way we earn a living is being transformed by economic globalization, new technologies, and innovations in social organization. The outlook for developing countries, in particular, is decidedly mixed. For most people most of the time, work is mostly unpleasant. Historically, doing lots of backbreaking work is how countries have become rich. And being rich is how some people get the chance to do more pleasant work…” Link

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Cities Need To Encourage Entrepreneurship, Not Class Warfare

Cities Need To Encourage Entrepreneurship, Not Class Warfare. Edward Glaeser, December 1, 2015, Opinion. “Urban America’s problems of poverty and joblessness are real. Progressives have been elected to address those problems, but their simple big-government solutions — updated but essentially the same as those tried in the past — are almost sure to fail. We need a more forward-looking urban-policy approach.  While many agree that entrepreneurship is good for cities and their residents, little consensus exists about what policymakers can do to promote it, especially in high-poverty areas. Public loans or loan guarantees for entrepreneurs are the most commonly applied policies. Unfortunately, we have no examples of truly randomized lending, which is what would be necessary in order to evaluate whether the government loan programs worked. Absent such experiments, the best we can do is compare companies that received such aid with similar firms that didn’t, and see how they fared …” Link

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Mothers’ Long-Term Employment Patterns

Mothers’ Long-Term Employment Patterns. Alexandra Killewald, 2015, Paper. “Previous research on maternal employment has disproportionately focused on married, college-educated mothers and examined either current employment status or postpartum return to employment. Following the life course perspective, we instead conceptualize maternal careers as long-term life course patterns. Using data from the NLSY79 and optimal matching, we document four common employment patterns of American mothers over the first 18 years of maternity. About two-thirds follow steady patterns, either full-time employment (38 percent) or steady nonemployment (24 percent). The rest experience “mixed” patterns: long-term part-time employment (20 percent), or a multiyear period of nonemployment following maternity, then a return to employment (18 percent). Consistent employment following maternity, either full-time or part-time, is characteristic of women with more economic advantages …Link

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The Wage Impact of the Marielitos: Additional Results

The Wage Impact of the Marielitos: Additional Results. George Borjas, December 2015, Paper. “Card’s (1990) study of the Mariel supply shock is an important contribution to the literature that measures the labor market impact of immigration. My recent reappraisal (Borjas, 2015) revealed that even the most cursory reexamination implied that the wage of low-skill workers in Miami declined substantially in the years after Mariel. In the three  months since the public release of my paper, there has already been one “re-reappraisal” of  the evidence.Link

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Work and Consumption in an Era of Unbalanced Technological Advance

Work and Consumption in an Era of Unbalanced Technological Advance. Benjamin Friedman, November 9, 2015, Paper. “Keynes’s “Grandchildren” essay famously predicted both a rapid increase in productivity and a sharp shrinkage of the workweek – to 15 h – over the century from 1930. Keynes was right (so far) about output per capita, but wrong about the workweek. The key reason is that he failed to allow for changing distribution. With widening inequality, median income (and therefore the income of most families) has risen, and is now rising, much more slowly than he anticipated. The failure of the workweek to shrink as he predicted follows. Other factors, including habit formation, socially induced consumption preferences, and network effects are part of the story too. Combining the analysis of Keynes, Meade and Galbraith suggests a way forward for economic policy under the prevailing circumstances.Link

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