Found 292 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

Adjustment and Income Distribution Impacts on the TPP

Adjustment and Income Distribution Impacts on the TPP. Robert Lawrence, April 2016, Book Chapter. “Like all free trade agreements, the Trans-Pacifi c Partnership (TPP) will yield gains to the economy in general but force difficult adjustments on some workers and businesses. Peter A. Petri and Michael G. Plummer (2016) find that the agreement will benefi t the United States as a whole, raise real wages of both skilled and unskilled workers, and increase the real return to capital. It will, however, hurt some workers. In particular, some workers will be displaced by imports and lose income from being unemployed or earning less in their new jobs.Link

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Tax Aversion in Labor Supply

Tax Aversion in Labor Supply. Michael I. Norton, April 2016, Paper. “In a real-effort laboratory experiment, labor supply decreases more with the introduction of a tax than with a financially equivalent drop in wages. This “tax aversion” is large in magnitude: when we decompose the productivity decrease that arises from taxation, we estimate that 40% is due to the lower net wage and the remaining 60% to tax aversion. This tax aversion affects labor supply more on the extensive margin (working less) than on the intensive margin (being less productive while working). The aversion is equally strong whether tax revenue goes to the U.S. government or back to the experimenter (a “laboratory tax”). We discuss the implications of our results for the relationship between labor supply and taxation.Link

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The Labor Supply of Undocumented Immigrants

The Labor Supply of Undocumented Immigrants. George Borjas, March 2016, Paper. “The Department of Homeland Security estimates that 11.4 million undocumented persons reside in the United States. Congress and President Obama are considering a number of proposals to regularize the status of the undocumented population and provide a “path to citizenship.” Any future change in the immigration status of this group is bound to have significant effects on the labor market, on the number of persons that qualify for various government-provided benefits, on the timing of retirement, on the size of the population receiving Social Security benefits, and on the funding of almost all of these government programs. This paper provides a comprehensive empirical study of the labor supply behavior of undocumented immigrants in the United States.Link

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How to use Economic Theory to Improve Estimators, with an Application to Labor Demand and Wage Inequality

How to use Economic Theory to Improve Estimators, with an Application to Labor Demand and Wage Inequality. Maximilian Kasy, March 12, 2016, Paper. “Economic theory, when it has empirical content, provides testable restrictions on empirically identified objects. These empirical objects might be estimated in an unrestricted way, leading to estimates of potentially large variance, or subject to the theoretical restrictions, leading to estimates of lower variance that are potentially biased, inconsistent, and non-robust.Link

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Real Fixes for Workplace Bias

Real Fixes for Workplace Bias. Iris Bohnet, March 11, 2016, Opinion. “Corporations, not-for-profit groups and governments spend billions of dollars every year on diversity training—without knowing whether the programs work. A review of almost 1,000 studies on interventions aimed at reducing prejudice found that most programs weren’t tested.Link

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Tethered Lives: A Couple-Based Perspective on the Consequences of Parenthood for Time Use, Occupation, and Wages

Tethered Lives: A Couple-Based Perspective on the Consequences of Parenthood for Time Use, Occupation, and Wages. Alexandra Killewald, March 2016, Paper. “Prior research on parenthood effects has typically used single-sex models and estimated average effects. By contrast, we estimate population-level variability in partners’ changes in housework hours, paid work hours, occupation traits, and wages after becoming parents, and we explore whether one partner’s adjustment offsets or supplements the other’s. We find tradeoffs between spouses on paid work adjustments to parenthood, but complementarity in adjustments to housework hours, occupation traits, and wages. The effect of parenthood on wives’ behaviors is larger and more variable than husbands’ in every domain.Link

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The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments

The Production of Human Capital in Developed Countries: Evidence from 196 Randomized Field Experiments. Roland Fryer, March 2016, Paper. “Randomized field experiments designed to better understand the production of human capital have increased exponentially over the past several decades. This chapter summarizes what we have learned about various partial derivatives of the human capital production function, what important partial derivatives are left to be estimated, and what – together – our collective efforts have taught us about how to produce human capital in developed countries. The chapter concludes with a back of the envelope simulation of how much of the racial wage gap in America might be accounted for if human capital policy focused on best practices gleaned from randomized field experiments.Link

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Housing and Employment Insecurity among the Working Poor

Housing and Employment Insecurity among the Working Poor. Matthew Desmond, February 2016, Paper. “While social scientists have documented severe consequences of job loss, scant research investigates why workers lose their jobs. We explore the role of housing insecurity in actuating employment insecurity, investigating if workers who involuntarily lose their homes subsequently involuntarily lose their jobs. Analyzing novel survey data of predominately low-income working renters, we find the likelihood of being laid off to be between 11 and 22 percentage points higher for workers who experienced a preceding forced move, compared to observationally identical workers who did not. Our findings suggest that initiatives promoting housing stability could promote employment stability.Link

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Dealing with Long Term Deficits

Dealing with Long Term Deficits. Martin Feldstein, January 2016, Paper. “The United States economy is now in good shape. We are essentially at full employment with the overall unemployment rate at 5.0 percent and the unemployment rate among college graduates at a very low 2.5 percent. The near zero overall rate of inflation is distorted by the sharp decline in energy prices. The core CPI inflation rate that excludes the prices of energy and food has increased by 2.0 percent over the past 12 months. The growth of demand in 2016 will be limited by the absence of excess capacity in the economy rather than by a lack of demand. Household spending will support real domestic demand growth of two percent or more because real earnings are rising at two percent, house prices are increasing in real terms, and employment prospects are good …” Link

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The Evolution of Work

The Evolution of Work. Dani Rodrik, December 9, 2015, Opinion. “In mid-December, the United Nations will launch the latest of its annual landmark Human Development Reports. This year’s report focuses on the nature of work: how the way we earn a living is being transformed by economic globalization, new technologies, and innovations in social organization. The outlook for developing countries, in particular, is decidedly mixed. For most people most of the time, work is mostly unpleasant. Historically, doing lots of backbreaking work is how countries have become rich. And being rich is how some people get the chance to do more pleasant work…” Link

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