Found 300 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

How Scary is Disruptive Technology?

How Scary is Disruptive Technology? Martin Feldstein, September 28, 2016, Opinion, “The steady stream of improvements in driverless cars has convinced me that before too long the roads will be filled with cars and trucks operating without humans at the wheel. Likewise, I am convinced that the revolution in artificial intelligence will allow computers and robots to do many of the tasks that white-collar workers now do.Link

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Men not at work: Lawrence Summers on America’s hidden unemployment

Men not at work: Lawrence Summers on America’s hidden unemployment. Lawrence Summers, September 23, 2016, Opinion, “The impact of technology on the availability of work is much debated these days. It is widely feared that half the jobs in the economy might be eliminated by innovations such as self-driving vehicles, automatic checkout machines and expert systems that trade securities more effectively than humans can.Link

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The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks

The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks. George Borjas, September 2016, Paper, “The continuing inflow of hundreds of thousands of refugees into many European countries has ignited much political controversy and raised questions that require a fuller understanding of the determinants and consequences of refugee supply shocks. This paper revisits four historical refugee shocks to document their labor market impact. Specifically, we examine: The influx of Marielitos into Miami in 1980; the influx of French repatriates and Algerian nationals into France at the end of the Algerian Independence War in 1962; the influx of Jewish émigrés into Israel after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s; and the exodus of refugees from the former Yugoslavia during the long series of Balkan wars between 1991 and 2001.Link

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Unpacking Team Diversity: An Integrative Multi-Level Model of Cross-Boundary Teaming

Unpacking Team Diversity: An Integrative Multi-Level Model of Cross-Boundary Teaming. Amy Edmondson, August 26, 2016, Paper, “Teaming across expertise boundaries, within and across organizations, is an increasingly popular strategy for innovation. Although membership diversity expands the range of perspectives that teams can draw upon to innovate, meta-analyses of the team-diversity literature have found weak or inconsistent support for that assumption. These studies also have typically examined effects of team diversity in relatively stable bounded teams, rather than in newly formed temporary groups.Link

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Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, August 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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Does Productivity Still Determine Worker Compensation? Domestic and International Evidence

Does Productivity Still Determine Worker Compensation? Domestic and International Evidence. Robert Lawrence, 2016, Book Chapter. “The American dream is that each generation should live twice as well as the previous one, and this requires that incomes rise at an annual rate of around 2 percent per year. At this pace, incomes will double every 35 years. Between 1947 and 1970, average real compensation in the US increased at annual rate of 2.6 percent—a pace that was actually faster than required to achieve the dream. But since 1970, the average real compensation of US workers has grown at less than 1 percent per year, and at that pace it would take almost a lifetime to see incomes double.Link

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Low-Skill Immigration

Low-Skill Immigration. George Borjas, 2016, Book Chapter. “Do low-skill immigrants harm the employment opportunities of low-skill native workers? And do low-skill immigrants “pay their way” in the welfare state, or are they a fiscal burden to native taxpayers? These questions regarding the consequences of low-skill immigration lie at the core of the contentious immigration debate in the United States today.Link

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Would Reducing the US Corporate Tax Rate Increase Employment in the United States?

Would Reducing the US Corporate Tax Rate Increase Employment in the United States? Martin Feldstein, 2016, Book Chapter. “Reducing the corporate tax rate and changing the rules for taxing the foreign earnings of US corporations would have many favorable effects, including an increase of employment in the United States.  First, a brief description of the current corporate tax arrangements. The federal government now imposes a statutory tax rate on corporate profits of 35 percent, the highest tax rate among all the industrial countries of the world. In addition, the individual states levy corporate tax rates that average 9 percent. Since that state tax is a deductible expense in calculating income subject to the federal corporate tax, the combined tax rate is approximately 40 percent.Link

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Weathering the Great Recession: Variation in Employment Responses by Establishments and Countries

Weathering the Great Recession: Variation in Employment Responses by Establishments and Countries. Richard Freeman, July 2016, Paper, “This paper finds that US employment changed differently relative to output in the Great Recession and recovery than in most other advanced countries or in the US in earlier recessions. Instead of hoarding labor, US firms reduced employment proportionately more than output in the Great Recession, with establishments that survived the downturn contracting jobs massively. Diverging from the aggregate pattern, US manufacturers reduced employment less than output while the elasticity of employment to gross output varied widely among establishments. In the recovery, growth of employment was dominated by job creation in new establishments. The variegated responses of employment to output challenges extant models of how enterprises adjust employment over the business cycle.” Link

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Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, July 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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