Found 309 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

Framing Race and Poverty

Framing Race and Poverty. William Julius Wilson, November 1, 2009, Opinion. “One thing I know is that it’s extremely important to discuss how race and poverty are framed in public policy discussions. How we situate social issues in the larger context of society says a lot about our commitment to change. As rhetorician Robert Asen has pointed out, the political framing of poverty—that is, how politicians formulate arguments about how we as a nation should talk about and address issues of poverty—in the New Deal era was quite different from today. Back then, the emphasis was on structure—namely, the devastating impact of the economic crisis…” Link

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Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment

Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment. Bruce Western, October 1, 2009, Paper. “Decades of racial progress have led some researchers and policymakers to doubt that discrimination remains an important cause of economic inequality. To study contemporary discrimination, we conducted a field experiment in the low-wage labor market of New York City, recruiting white, black, and Latino job applicants who were matched on demographic characteristics and interpersonal skills. These applicants were given equivalent résumés and sent to apply in tandem for hundreds of entry-level jobs. Our results show that black applicants…” Link

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Location Strategies for Agglomeration Economies

Location Strategies for Agglomeration Economies. Juan Alcacer, September 2009, Paper. “Geographically concentrated industry activity creates pools of skilled labor, specialized suppliers, and increases opportunities for knowledge spillover. These agglomeration economies offer potential advantage for  firms, but research exploring their strategic implications is incomplete.  Therefore, we develop a three-layer framework of why firms agglomerate for each agglomeration economy. The first layer assesses the relative importance of skilled labor, suppliers, and knowledge spillovers…” Link

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Virtue out of Necessity? Compliance, Commitment and the Improvement of Labor Conditions in Global Supply Chains

Virtue out of Necessity? Compliance, Commitment and the Improvement of Labor Conditions in Global Supply Chains. Akshay Mangla, September 2009, Paper. “Private, voluntary compliance programs, promoted by global corporations and nongovernmental organizations alike, have produced only modest and uneven improvements in working conditions and labor rights in most global supply chains. Through a detailed study of a major global apparel company and its suppliers, this article argues that this compliance model rests on misguided theoretical and empirical assumptions…” Link

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The Complementarity Between Cities and Skills

The Complementarity Between Cities and Skills, Edward Glaeser, June 2009, Paper. “There is a strong connection between per-worker productivity and metropolitan area population, which is commonly interpreted as evidence for the existence of agglomeration economies. This correlation is particularly strong in cities with higher levels of skill and virtually nonexistent in less skilled metropolitan areas. This fact is particularly compatible with the view that urban density is important because proximity spreads knowledge, which either makes workers more skilled or entrepreneurs more productive…” Link

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Understanding Child Labor in India

Understanding Child Labor in India. Akshay Mangla, Summer 2009, Paper. “In this era of globalization, few issues facing developing countries attract the same amount of popular attention as child labor. One need not look far to find heart wrenching images in the media of children at work, stitching soccer balls in Pakistan, mining for diamonds in Uganda, or picking coffee beans in Guatemala. Beyond these images, however, we know relatively little about the nature and extent of child labor. The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that 218 million children…” Link

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Civil society and the state: The interplay between cooperation and minimum wage regulation

Civil society and the state: The interplay between cooperation and minimum wage regulation. Philippe Aghion, April 30, 2009, Paper. “In a cross-section of countries, state regulation of labor markets is strongly negatively correlated with the quality of labor relations. In this paper, we argue that these facts reflect different ways to regulate labor markets, either through the state or through the civil society, depending on the degree of cooperation in the economy. We rationalize these facts with a model of learning of…” Link

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TECHNOLOGY AND LABOR REGULATIONS

TECHNOLOGY AND LABOR REGULATIONS. Alberto Alesina, April 2009, Paper. “Many low skilled jobs have been substituted away for machines in Europe, or eliminated, much more so than in the US, while technological progress at the “top”, i.e. at the high-tech sector, is faster in the US than in Europe. This paper suggests that the main difference between Europe and the US in this respect is their different labor market policies. European countries reduce wage flexibility and inequality through a host of labor market regulations, like binding minimum wage laws, permanent unemployment subsidies, firing costs, etc..” Link

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Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets

Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets. Bruce Western, 2009, Paper. “A large body of theoretical and empirical research would lead us to predict a steady decline in discrimination, but several features of contemporary low-wage labor markets may function to sustain or renew racialized decision-making. Shifts in the composition of both low-wage jobs and workers have potentially created new incentives and opportunities for employers to enact racial preferences in the selection of workers.Link

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Can Policy Interact with Culture? Minimum Wage and the Quality of Labor Relations

Can Policy Interact with Culture? Minimum Wage and the Quality of Labor Relations. Philippe Aghion, September 2008, Paper. “Can public policy interfere with culture, such as beliefs and norms of cooperation? We investigate his question by evaluating the interactions between the State and the Civil Society, focusing on the labor market. International data shows a negative correlation between union density and the quality of labor relations on one hand, and state regulation of the minimum wage on the other hand…” Link

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