Found 287 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

Evidence That Minorities Perform Worse Under Biased Managers

Evidence That Minorities Perform Worse Under Biased Managers. Amanda Pallais, January 13, 2017, Paper, “There is a growing body of research showing that minorities face bias in the job application process. When identical resumes — one with the name Emily and one with the name Lakisha, for example — are sent to job openings, Emily’s resume gets substantially more callbacks. And even with the same credentials as other candidates, minorities are less likely to be hired.Link

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Stop Waiting for Governments to Close the Skills Gap

Stop Waiting for Governments to Close the Skills Gap. George Serafeim, January 11, 2017, Case, “Donald Trump was elected with the promise to “make America great again.” But America was already great for some people. For example, America has been good for investors: The Dow Jones was at a record high before Trump got elected, and it has risen further since the election. But the country has not been great for workers, who have seen their wages stagnate or decline over the past 15–20 years. America needs to become a great place to work again. And this will only happen if we align the interests of workers and investors such that companies focus on worker well-being to deliver better financial results.Link

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High-Skill Migration and Agglomeration

High-Skill Migration and Agglomeration. William Kerr, 2017, Paper, “This review considers recent research regarding high-skilled migration. We adopt a data-driven perspective, bringing together and describing several ongoing research streams that range from the construction of global migration databases, to the legal codification of national policies regarding high-skilled migration, to the analysis of patent data regarding cross-border inventor movements. A common theme throughout this research is the importance of agglomeration economies for explaining high-skilled migration. We highlight some key recent findings and outline major gaps that we hope will be tackled soon.Link

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Welcome Home in a Crisis: Effects of Return Migration on the Non-migrants’ Wages and Employment

Welcome Home in a Crisis: Effects of Return Migration on the Non-migrants’ Wages and Employment. Ricardo Hausmann, 2017, Paper, “Albanian migrants in Greece were particularly affected by the Greek crisis, which spurred a wave of return migration that increased Albania’s labor force by 5% between 2011 and 2014 alone. We study how this return migration affected the employment chances and earnings of Albanians who never migrated. We find positive effects on the wages of low-skilled non-migrants and overall positive effects on employment. The gains partially offset the sharp drop in remittances in the observed period. The employment gains are concentrated in the agricultural sector, where most return migrants engage in self-employment and entrepreneurship. Businesses run by return migrants seem to pull Albanians from non-participation, self-employment and subsistence agriculture into commercial agriculture.Link

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Entrepreneurship and growth: lessons from an intellectual journey

Entrepreneurship and growth: lessons from an intellectual journey. Philippe Aghion, January 2017, Paper, “This lecture is the story of an intellectual journey, that of elaborating a new—Schumpeterian—theory of economic growth. A theory where (i) growth is generated by innovative entrepreneurs; (ii) entrepreneurial investments respond to incentives that are themselves shaped by economic policies and institutions; (iii) new innovations replace old technologies: in other words, growth involves creative destruction and therefore involves a permanent conflict between incumbents and new entrants. First, we motivate and then lay out the Schumpeterian paradigm and point to a set of empirical predictions which distinguish this paradigm from other growth models. Second, we raise four debates on which the Schumpeterian approach sheds new light: the middle income trap, secular stagnation, the recent rise in top income inequality, and firm dynamics. Third and last, we show how the paradigm can be used to think (or rethink) about growth policy design.Link

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Is There a Goldilocks Solution? “Just Right” Promotion of Labor Mobility

Is There a Goldilocks Solution? “Just Right” Promotion of Labor Mobility. Lant Pritchett, December 2016, Paper, “Relaxations of rich country restrictions on the mobility of low-skilled labor is far and away the single most potent policy change to raise incomes of people now living in poor countries. But this just isn’t on the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals agenda or the agenda of any development actor. The reason why is seemingly obvious: rich country voters don’t want it. In this policy essay we take issue with that explanation in two ways. First, a naïve explanation of the global agenda as determined by the “polled opinion of the median voters” (of whatever countries) is an empirically poor model.Link

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Beliefs about Gender

Beliefs about Gender. Andrei Shleifer, December 2016, Paper, “We conduct a laboratory experiment on the determinants of beliefs about own and others’ ability across different domains. A preliminary look at the data points to two distinct forces: miscalibration in estimating performance depending on the difficulty of tasks and gender stereotypes. We develop a theoretical model that separates these forces and apply it to analyze a large laboratory dataset in which participants estimate their own and a partner’s performance on questions across six subjects: arts and literature, emotion recognition, business, verbal reasoning, mathematics, and sports.Link

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Hiring Big from Small Towns—Evidence from a Natural Experiment in India

Hiring Big from Small Towns—Evidence from a Natural Experiment in India. Prithwiraj Choudhury, Tarun Khanna, 2016, Paper, “An insufficient supply of skilled human capital constrains the growth of technology firms in India. Despite this, most firms’ hiring efforts are geographically concentrated around the large cities, and individuals living in smaller towns are mostly excluded from the hiring efforts. We argue that despite the ex ante higher search costs of hiring from smaller towns, firms can benefit from hiring individuals from smallertowns. We study the relation between an employee’s prior location (hometown) and subsequent productivity within the firm and exploit a natural experiment within an Indian technology firm where the preexistence of a computer-generated talent allocation protocol allows us to control for endogeneity concerns related to assortative matching of employees to production centers.Link

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