Found 292 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity

Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity. Tom Nicholas, February 2017, Paper, “This paper builds on the analysis in Akcigit, Grigsby, and Nicholas (2017) by using US patent and Census data to examine macro and micro-level aspects of the relationship between immigration and innovation. We construct a measure of “foreign born expertise” and show that technology areas where immigrant inventors were prevalent between 1880 and 1940 experienced more patenting and citations between 1940 and 2000. We also show that immigrant inventors were more productive during their life cycle than native born inventors, although they received significantly lower levels of labor income than their native born counterparts. Overall, the contribution of foreign born inventors to US innovation was substantial, but we also find evidence of an immigrant inventor wage-gap that cannot be explained by differentials in productivity.Link

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Racial Inequality in Employment and Earnings after Incarceration

Racial Inequality in Employment and Earnings after Incarceration. Bruce Western, February 2017, Paper, “This paper analyzes monthly employment and earnings in the year after incarceration with survey data from a sample of individuals just released from prison. More than in earlier research, the data provide detailed measurement of temporary and informal employment and richly describe the labor market disadvantages of formerly-incarcerated men and women. We find that half the sample is jobless in any given month and average earnings are well below the poverty level. Jointly modeling employment and earnings, blacks and Hispanics are estimated to have lower total earnings than whites even after accounting for health, human capital, and criminal involvement.Link

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Is Global Equality the Enemy of National Equality?

Is Global Equality the Enemy of National Equality? Dani Rodrik, January 2017, Paper, “The bulk of global inequality is accounted for by income differences across countries rather than within countries. Expanding trade with China has aggravated inequality in some advanced economies, while ameliorating global inequality. But the “China shock” is receding and other low-income countries are unlikely to replicate China’s export-oriented industrialization experience. Relaxing restrictions on cross-border labor mobility might have an even stronger positive effect on global inequality. However it also raises a similar tension. While there would likely be adverse effects on low-skill workers in the advanced economies, international labor mobility has some advantages compared to further liberalizing international trade in goods. I argue that none of the contending perspectives — national-egalitarian, cosmopolitan, utilitarian — provides on its own an adequate frame for evaluating the consequences.Link

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Concentrating on the Fall of the Labor Share

Concentrating on the Fall of the Labor Share. Lawrence Katz, January 2017, Paper, “The recent fall of labor’s share of GDP in numerous countries is well-documented, but its causes are poorly understood. We sketch a “superstar firm” model where industries are increasingly characterized by “winner take most” competition, leading a small number of highly profitable (and low labor share) firms to command growing market share. Building on Autor et al. (2017), we evaluate and confirm two core claims of the superstar firm hypothesis: the concentration of sales among firms within industries has risen across much of the private sector; and industries with larger increases in concentration exhibit a larger decline in labor’s share.Link

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Can Paying Firms More Quickly Affect Aggregate Employment

Can Paying Firms More Quickly Affect Aggregate Employment. Ramana Nanda, January 2017, Paper, “We study the impact of Quickpay, a federal reform that indefinitely accelerated payments to small business contractors of the U.S. government. Despite treated firms being paid just 15 days sooner, we find a strong direct effect of the reform on county-sector employment growth. Importantly, however, we also document substantial crowding out of non-treated firms’ employment within local labor markets. While the overall net employment effect was positive, it was close to zero in tight labor markets – where direct effects were weaker and crowding out stronger. Our results highlight an important channel for alleviating financing constraints in small firms, but also emphasize the general-equilibrium effects of large-scale interventions, which can lead to lower aggregate outcomes depending on labor market conditions.Link

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Evidence That Minorities Perform Worse Under Biased Managers

Evidence That Minorities Perform Worse Under Biased Managers. Amanda Pallais, January 13, 2017, Paper, “There is a growing body of research showing that minorities face bias in the job application process. When identical resumes — one with the name Emily and one with the name Lakisha, for example — are sent to job openings, Emily’s resume gets substantially more callbacks. And even with the same credentials as other candidates, minorities are less likely to be hired.Link

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Stop Waiting for Governments to Close the Skills Gap

Stop Waiting for Governments to Close the Skills Gap. George Serafeim, January 11, 2017, Case, “Donald Trump was elected with the promise to “make America great again.” But America was already great for some people. For example, America has been good for investors: The Dow Jones was at a record high before Trump got elected, and it has risen further since the election. But the country has not been great for workers, who have seen their wages stagnate or decline over the past 15–20 years. America needs to become a great place to work again. And this will only happen if we align the interests of workers and investors such that companies focus on worker well-being to deliver better financial results.Link

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High-Skill Migration and Agglomeration

High-Skill Migration and Agglomeration. William Kerr, 2017, Paper, “This review considers recent research regarding high-skilled migration. We adopt a data-driven perspective, bringing together and describing several ongoing research streams that range from the construction of global migration databases, to the legal codification of national policies regarding high-skilled migration, to the analysis of patent data regarding cross-border inventor movements. A common theme throughout this research is the importance of agglomeration economies for explaining high-skilled migration. We highlight some key recent findings and outline major gaps that we hope will be tackled soon.Link

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Welcome Home in a Crisis: Effects of Return Migration on the Non-migrants’ Wages and Employment

Welcome Home in a Crisis: Effects of Return Migration on the Non-migrants’ Wages and Employment. Ricardo Hausmann, 2017, Paper, “Albanian migrants in Greece were particularly affected by the Greek crisis, which spurred a wave of return migration that increased Albania’s labor force by 5% between 2011 and 2014 alone. We study how this return migration affected the employment chances and earnings of Albanians who never migrated. We find positive effects on the wages of low-skilled non-migrants and overall positive effects on employment. The gains partially offset the sharp drop in remittances in the observed period. The employment gains are concentrated in the agricultural sector, where most return migrants engage in self-employment and entrepreneurship. Businesses run by return migrants seem to pull Albanians from non-participation, self-employment and subsistence agriculture into commercial agriculture.Link

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