Found 309 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

“Last-Place Aversion”: Evidence and Redistributive Implications

“Last-Place Aversion”: Evidence and Redistributive Implications, Michael I. Norton, July 2011 Working Paper (linked) / Published – February 2014, Paper, We present evidence from laboratory experiments showing that individuals are “last-place averse.” Participants choose gambles with the potential to move them out of last place that they reject when randomly placed in other parts of the distribution. In modified dictator games, participants randomly placed in second-to-last place are the most likely to give money to the person one rank above them instead of the person one rank below. Last-place aversion suggests that low-income individuals might oppose redistribution because it could differentially help the group just beneath them. Using survey data, we show that individuals making just above the minimum wage are the most likely to oppose its increase. Similarly, in the General Social Survey, those above poverty but below median income support redistribution significantly less than their background characteristics would predictLink

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Do Broad-based Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing and Stock Options Help the Best Firms Do Even Better?

Do Broad-based Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing and Stock Options Help the Best Firms Do Even Better? Richard Freeman, 2011, Paper, “This article analyses the linkages among group incentive methods of compensation (broad-based employee ownership, profit sharing and stock options), labour practices, worker assessments of workplace culture, turnover and firm performance in firms that applied to the ‘100 Best Companies to Work For in America’ competition from 2005 to 2007. Although employers with good labour practices self-select into the 100 Best Companies firms sample…Link

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Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does it Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps?

Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does it Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps? Ricardo Hausmann, April 2011, Paper. “In this paper we examine several dimensions of gender disparity for a sample of 40 countries using micro-level data. We start by documenting the reversal of the gender education gap and ranking countries by the year in which it reversed. Then we turn to an analysis of the state of other gaps facing women: we compare men and women’s labor force participation (the labor force participation gap), married and single women’s labor force participation (the marriage gap), and…” Link

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Fertility and the Plough

Fertility and the Plough. Nathan Nunn, 2011, Paper. “Recent studies provide evidence that a significant portion of the cross-country variation in female labor participation and fertility can be explained by cultural norms. In a recent paper, we examine the historical origins of these cultural differences (see Alesina, Giuliano, and Nunn 2010). We test the long-standing hypothesis, first developed by Ester Boserup (1970), that different attitudes about gender roles evolved because of differences in the form of agriculture traditionally practiced. In societies with shifting cultivation, agriculture is labor intensive, cultivation uses a hoe or a digging stick, and women actively participate…” Link

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Grand Challenges in the Study of Employment and Technological Change

Grand Challenges in the Study of Employment and Technological Change. Lawrence Katz, September 29, 2010, Paper. “Leading economists from Paul Samuelson to Paul Krugman have labored to allay the fear that technological advances may reduce overall employment, causing mass unemployment as workers are displaced by machines. This ‘lump of labor fallacy’ – positing that there is a fixed amount of work to be done so that increased labor productivity reduces employment – is intuitively appealing and demonstrably false. Technological improvements create new products and services…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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“Schooling Can’t Buy Me Love”: Marriage, Work, and the Gender Education Gap in Latin America

“Schooling Can’t Buy Me Love”: Marriage, Work, and the Gender Education Gap in Latin America. Ricardo Hausmann, July 2010, Paper. “In this paper we establish six stylized facts related to marriage and work in Latin America and present a simple model to account for them. First, skilled women are less likely to be married than unskilled women. Second, skilled women are less likely to be married than skilled men. Third, married skilled men are more likely to work than unmarried skilled men, but married skilled women are less likely to work than unmarried skilled women. Fourth, Latin American women…” Link

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The Secret to Job Growth: Think Small

The Secret to Job Growth: Think Small. Edward Glaeser, William Kerr, July 2010, Paper. “With job growth continuing to lag even as the economy picks up, local communities will be tempted to resume “smokestack chasing” – using tax breaks to attract big employers. That’s a misguided approach. Research shows that regional economic growth is highly correlated with the presence of many small, entrepreneurial employers – not a few big ones. In fact, a study of U.S. metro regions showed that cities whose number of “firms per worker” was 10% higher than the average in 1977 experienced 9%…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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The Varieties of Regional Change

The Varieties of Regional Change. Edward Glaeser, Kristina Tobio, Giacomo Ponzetto, June 2010, Paper. “Many metropolitan areas have experienced extreme boom-bust cycles over the past century. Some places, like Detroit, grew enormously as industrial powerhouses and then declined, while other older cities, like Boston, seem quite resilient. Education does a reasonable job of explaining urban resilience. In this paper, we present a simple model where education increases the level of entrepreneurship. In this model, human capital spillovers occur at the city level because skilled workers produce more product varieties and thereby…” Link

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How Big Business Can Regain Legitimacy

How Big Business Can Regain Legitimacy. Michael Porter, May 6, 2010, Opinion. “High unemployment, rising poverty, and the public’s dismay over corporate greed continue to challenge the market system and the legitimacy of business itself. Feeling the heat even amid talk of recovery, many large organizations are increasing their focus on corporate social responsibility. The problem is that their efforts have not made much of a dent in the challenges they were meant to address—or in the negative perception of big business. Business must find a way to engage positively in society, but this will not happen as long as it sees its social agenda as separate from its core business agenda…Link

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Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India

Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India, Rohini Pande, May 2010, Paper, “What constrains the entrepreneurial choices of poor women? Do traditional institutions pose unique barriers to business growth and profitability for female-run enterprises? The explosion of microfinance programs, which typically target poor female entrepreneurs, has drawn attention to these questions. Indeed, one view is that inadequate access to credit prevents women from under- taking high-return business activities. However, one recent empirical study finds low returns to capital in female-run micro-enterprises.” Link

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