Found 302 article(s) in category 'Jobs and Unemployment'

The Varieties of Regional Change

The Varieties of Regional Change. Edward Glaeser, Kristina Tobio, Giacomo Ponzetto, June 2010, Paper. “Many metropolitan areas have experienced extreme boom-bust cycles over the past century. Some places, like Detroit, grew enormously as industrial powerhouses and then declined, while other older cities, like Boston, seem quite resilient. Education does a reasonable job of explaining urban resilience. In this paper, we present a simple model where education increases the level of entrepreneurship. In this model, human capital spillovers occur at the city level because skilled workers produce more product varieties and thereby…” Link

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How Big Business Can Regain Legitimacy

How Big Business Can Regain Legitimacy. Michael Porter, May 6, 2010, Opinion. “High unemployment, rising poverty, and the public’s dismay over corporate greed continue to challenge the market system and the legitimacy of business itself. Feeling the heat even amid talk of recovery, many large organizations are increasing their focus on corporate social responsibility. The problem is that their efforts have not made much of a dent in the challenges they were meant to address—or in the negative perception of big business. Business must find a way to engage positively in society, but this will not happen as long as it sees its social agenda as separate from its core business agenda…Link

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Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India

Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India, Rohini Pande, May 2010, Paper, “What constrains the entrepreneurial choices of poor women? Do traditional institutions pose unique barriers to business growth and profitability for female-run enterprises? The explosion of microfinance programs, which typically target poor female entrepreneurs, has drawn attention to these questions. Indeed, one view is that inadequate access to credit prevents women from under- taking high-return business activities. However, one recent empirical study finds low returns to capital in female-run micro-enterprises.” Link

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Framing Race and Poverty

Framing Race and Poverty. William Julius Wilson, November 1, 2009, Opinion. “One thing I know is that it’s extremely important to discuss how race and poverty are framed in public policy discussions. How we situate social issues in the larger context of society says a lot about our commitment to change. As rhetorician Robert Asen has pointed out, the political framing of poverty—that is, how politicians formulate arguments about how we as a nation should talk about and address issues of poverty—in the New Deal era was quite different from today. Back then, the emphasis was on structure—namely, the devastating impact of the economic crisis…” Link

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Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment

Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment. Bruce Western, October 1, 2009, Paper. “Decades of racial progress have led some researchers and policymakers to doubt that discrimination remains an important cause of economic inequality. To study contemporary discrimination, we conducted a field experiment in the low-wage labor market of New York City, recruiting white, black, and Latino job applicants who were matched on demographic characteristics and interpersonal skills. These applicants were given equivalent résumés and sent to apply in tandem for hundreds of entry-level jobs. Our results show that black applicants…” Link

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Location Strategies for Agglomeration Economies

Location Strategies for Agglomeration Economies. Juan Alcacer, September 2009, Paper. “Geographically concentrated industry activity creates pools of skilled labor, specialized suppliers, and increases opportunities for knowledge spillover. These agglomeration economies offer potential advantage for  firms, but research exploring their strategic implications is incomplete.  Therefore, we develop a three-layer framework of why firms agglomerate for each agglomeration economy. The first layer assesses the relative importance of skilled labor, suppliers, and knowledge spillovers…” Link

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Virtue out of Necessity? Compliance, Commitment and the Improvement of Labor Conditions in Global Supply Chains

Virtue out of Necessity? Compliance, Commitment and the Improvement of Labor Conditions in Global Supply Chains. Akshay Mangla, September 2009, Paper. “Private, voluntary compliance programs, promoted by global corporations and nongovernmental organizations alike, have produced only modest and uneven improvements in working conditions and labor rights in most global supply chains. Through a detailed study of a major global apparel company and its suppliers, this article argues that this compliance model rests on misguided theoretical and empirical assumptions…” Link

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The Complementarity Between Cities and Skills

The Complementarity Between Cities and Skills, Edward Glaeser, June 2009, Paper. “There is a strong connection between per-worker productivity and metropolitan area population, which is commonly interpreted as evidence for the existence of agglomeration economies. This correlation is particularly strong in cities with higher levels of skill and virtually nonexistent in less skilled metropolitan areas. This fact is particularly compatible with the view that urban density is important because proximity spreads knowledge, which either makes workers more skilled or entrepreneurs more productive…” Link

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Understanding Child Labor in India

Understanding Child Labor in India. Akshay Mangla, Summer 2009, Paper. “In this era of globalization, few issues facing developing countries attract the same amount of popular attention as child labor. One need not look far to find heart wrenching images in the media of children at work, stitching soccer balls in Pakistan, mining for diamonds in Uganda, or picking coffee beans in Guatemala. Beyond these images, however, we know relatively little about the nature and extent of child labor. The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that 218 million children…” Link

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Civil society and the state: The interplay between cooperation and minimum wage regulation

Civil society and the state: The interplay between cooperation and minimum wage regulation. Philippe Aghion, April 30, 2009, Paper. “In a cross-section of countries, state regulation of labor markets is strongly negatively correlated with the quality of labor relations. In this paper, we argue that these facts reflect different ways to regulate labor markets, either through the state or through the civil society, depending on the degree of cooperation in the economy. We rationalize these facts with a model of learning of…” Link

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