Found 308 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

Silk-Road Type Projects: Lessons From Some Historical Examples

Silk-Road Type Projects: Lessons From Some Historical Examples. Robert Z. Lawrence, 2016, Book Chapter. “China’s Belt and Road Initiative is a project of truly historic proportions. If successful, it has the potential to deliver significant benefits to China and its neighbors. To realize this potential, both China and the recipient nations must overcome numerous institutional challenges. This chapter draws on a variety of historical experiences to explore the nature of these challenges. It does so not to argue that history will repeat itself or to imply that the project replicates the precise conditions of the examples chosen but to reflect on what history tells us about both the potential and pitfalls that have been associated with such endeavors in the past.Link

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Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China.

Intellectual Property Rights Protection, Ownership, and Innovation: Evidence from China. Josh Lerner, March 1, 2015, Paper, “Using a difference-in-difference approach, we study how intellectual property right (IPR) protection affects innovation in China in the years around the privatizations of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Innovation increases after SOE privatizations, and this increase is larger in cities with strong IPR protection. Our results support theoretical arguments that IPR protection strengthens firms’ incentives to innovate and that private sector firms are more sensitive to IPR protection than SOEs.Link

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Education, Research, and Innovation in Africa

Education, Research, and Innovation in Africa. Calestous Juma, February 2016, Paper. “Africa is a youthful continent: nearly 41% of its population is under the age of 18. To address the unique challenges of this demographic structure, the African Union (AU) has adopted a 50-year Agenda 2063 to help guide the socioeconomic transformation of the continent with particular reference to the youth. One of the objectives of Agenda 2063 is to reposition the continent as a strategic player in the global economy through improved education and application of science and technology in development. The AU’s Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Africa, 2024 (STISA-2024) provides an intial 10-year framework for pursuing this goal.Link

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Owning, Using and Renting: Some Simple Economics of the “Sharing Economy”

Owning, Using and Renting: Some Simple Economics of the “Sharing Economy”. Richard Zeckhauser, February 2016, Paper. “New Internet-based markets enable consumer/owners to rent out their durable goods when not using them. Such markets are modeled to determine ownership, rental rates, quantities, and surplus generated. Both the short run, before consumers can revise their ownership decisions, and the long run, in which they can, are examined to assess how these markets change ownership and consumption. The analysis examines bringing-to-market costs, such as labor costs and transaction costs, and considers the operating platform’s pricing problem. A survey of consumers broadly supports the modeling assumptions employed. For example, ownership is determined by individuals’ forward-looking assessments of planned usage.Link

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BUYING TIME: The Science of Happier Spending

BUYING TIME: The Science of Happier Spending. Michael I. Norton, Winter 2016, Paper. “MANY OF US WISH WE HAD MORE FREE TIME to do what we love — whether it be working out, reading or playing guitar. In theory, it is possible to use the money we earn to ‘buy’ more of this kind of time; but research suggests that even when we can afford to do so, we are not spending our time in more enjoyable ways on a regular basis.Link

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The ICT Revolution, World Economic Growth, and Policy Issues

The ICT Revolution, World Economic Growth, and Policy Issues. Dale Jorgenson, February 1, 2016, Paper. “The ICT revolution fueled by the exponential progress of the semiconductor technology and the accelerated pace of globalization has become an important driver of economic growth across nations. In this rapidly changing landscape, the world economy is entering into a New Economic Order, in which developing Asia led by two fast-growing giant economies, China and India, will have much larger impacts on the world economy. This paper provides empirical evidence on these phenomena and highlights policy issues that deem important for a country to seize the ICT revolution for promoting economic growth.Link

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Peer-to-Peer Rental Markets: Some Thoughts on the “Sharing Economy”

Peer-to-Peer Rental Markets: Some Thoughts on the “Sharing Economy.” Richard Zeckhauser, January 21, 2016, Paper. “Recent technological advances and entrepreneurial efforts have created a number of new peer-to-peer rental markets in which owners can rent out their durable goods. We consider the emergence of such a market and determine the market clearing rental rate, the patterns of trade and the surplus unlocked for different types of consumers. Our analysis considers both a short-run, before consumers can revise their ownership decisions and a long-run, in which they can. A survey of consumers finds broad support for the modeling conventions used—namely that ownership is determined by a forward-looking evaluation of planned usage. We also explore the factors that are permitting these new markets to flourish …Link

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The Impact of Information Technology on Postwar US Economic Growth

The Impact of Information Technology on Postwar US Economic Growth. Dale Jorgenson, November 28, 2015, Paper. “We provide detailed information on the crucial role of information technology in the postwar growth of the U.S. economy, from the development of the telecommunications services and the telecommunications equipment industries through the successful commercialization of semiconductor technology and the ongoing shift to cloud-based IT services. Our industry-level data set reveals that productivity gains over the postwar period originated disproportionally in industries that produce IT, but the replication of established technologies through growth of capital and labor inputs explains by far the largest proportion of U.S. economic growth. We find that the substantial growth deceleration during the Great Recession was driven by modestly negative aggregate productivity growth, but that only a minor portion of the drop in the growth rate was due to the IT-producing industries.Link

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Work and Consumption in an Era of Unbalanced Technological Advance

Work and Consumption in an Era of Unbalanced Technological Advance. Benjamin Friedman, November 9, 2015, Paper. “Keynes’s “Grandchildren” essay famously predicted both a rapid increase in productivity and a sharp shrinkage of the workweek – to 15 h – over the century from 1930. Keynes was right (so far) about output per capita, but wrong about the workweek. The key reason is that he failed to allow for changing distribution. With widening inequality, median income (and therefore the income of most families) has risen, and is now rising, much more slowly than he anticipated. The failure of the workweek to shrink as he predicted follows. Other factors, including habit formation, socially induced consumption preferences, and network effects are part of the story too. Combining the analysis of Keynes, Meade and Galbraith suggests a way forward for economic policy under the prevailing circumstances.Link

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The Measurement of Bridging Social Capital in Population Health Research

The Measurement of Bridging Social Capital in Population Health Research. Ichiro Kawachi, November 1, 2015, Paper. “Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through membership in social networks. The definition is consistent with either an individualistic approach or a collective approach. Social capital can be further classified according to bonding versus bridging social capital (e.g. relationships between individuals who are homogeneous or heterogeneous with respect to social class, race/ethnicity, or other attributes). We conducted a systematic review via Pubmed, the ISI web of knowledge…” Link

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