Found 310 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

“Get your swabs out of my face!” Links between Institutional Context and Public Support for New Technologies

“Get your swabs out of my face!” Links between Institutional Context and Public Support for New Technologies. Jennifer Hochschild, June 6, 2016, Paper. “While not dispositive, public opinion may be especially influential for elected officials on issues about which they have no prior record, views, or expertise. Views on medical and forensic biobanks, therefore, may be important for policy development. Comparison of views between them enable a test of our theory that differing levels of  institutionalization are crucial in shaping public responses to technology; the overall population and politically salient groups have much stronger reactions, both positive and negative, to technologies that are deeply embedded in institutional context than to those with few institutional roots. The evidence comes from a new national survey of about 4000 Americans, with parallel items on medical and forensic DNA databases and almost 4000 open-ended comments explaining respondents’ stances on biobanking.Link

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Innovation Is Not Enough

Innovation Is Not Enough. Dani Rodrik, June 3, 2016, Opinion. “We seem to be living in an accelerated age of revolutionary technological breakthroughs. Barely a day passes without the announcement of some major new development in artificial intelligence, biotechnology, digitization, or automation. Yet those who are supposed to know where it is all taking us can’t make up their minds.Link

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Why our stereotypes of African agriculture are all wrong

Why our stereotypes of African agriculture are all wrong. Calestous Juma, June 1, 2016, Opinion, “From newspaper editors to TV anchors to bloggers, the default symbol of African agriculture is an African woman holding a hand hoe. This imagery highlights the drudgery African women face in farming. But it also conflates family farming with the broader agricultural enterprise.Link

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U.S. innovators dogged by money-grubbing ‘patent trolls’

U.S. innovators dogged by money-grubbing ‘patent trolls’. Lauren Cohen, May 26, 2016, Video. “The U.S. economy is driven by innovation, but unwelcome “patent trolls” are gunking up the system. Patent reform bills sit idle in Congress as the “trolls” set up companies for the sole purpose, critics say, of shaking down inventors while never creating anything. “We just have to write ’em a check so they’ll go away,” says one disgusted app maker. Economics correspondent Paul Solman reports.Link

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Economic Development and the Accumulation of Know-how

Economic Development and the Accumulation of Know-how. Ricardo Hausmann, May 2016, Paper. “Economic development depends on the accumulation of know-how. The theory of economic growth has long emphasised the importance of something called technical progress, but what that is, and how it grows has not been well elucidated. Technical progress is really based on three separate aspects: tools, or embodied knowledge, recipes or blueprints or codified knowledge and know-how or tacit knowledge. While tools can be shipped and codes can be e-mailed, know-how exists only as a particular wiring of the brain and as such it is hard to move around. That is why the growth of know-how can easily become the binding constraint on the development process.Link

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Microeconomics of Competitiveness Financial Services Cluster in Lima – Final Report

Microeconomics of Competitiveness Financial Services Cluster in Lima – Final Report. Laura Alfaro, May 6, 2016, Paper. “Since gaining independence from the Spanish Empire in 1824, Peru has had a long history of dictatorships and military coups. Only in the 1980s did the country achieve a peacefully elected democracy. Since that time, in spite of pressure from fringe, armed political groups like the “Shining Path”, the country has managed thirty-six years (and counting) of stable democracy. The country today exists as a constitutional republic with a unicameral legislature, and there are roughly eight active political parties at the national stage1 (parties coalesce and diverge as coalitions form and break apart from vote to vote).Link

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Financing High-Potential Entrepreneurship

Financing High-Potential Entrepreneurship. Ramana Nanda, April 2016, Paper. “Entrepreneurship is essential to job creation and to productivity growth and therefore is an important matter for government policy. However, policymakers face a difficult challenge because successful growth for a few firms—which cannot easily be identified in advance—is accompanied by widespread failure for most other new firms. Predicting which firms will fail and which will succeed is nearly impossible. Instead of futilely trying to pick winners, governments can play a useful role in facilitating the growth of the most promising firms by setting the conditions for efficient trial-and-error experimentation across firms.Link

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Innovation and Its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies

Innovation and Its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies. Calestous Juma, 2016, Book. “The rise of artificial intelligence has rekindled a long-standing debate regarding the impact of technology on employment. This is just one of many areas where exponential advances in technology signal both hope and fear, leading to public controversy. This book shows that many debates over new technologies are framed in the context of risks to moral values, human health, and environmental safety. But it argues that behind these legitimate concerns often lie deeper, but unacknowledged, socioeconomic considerations. Technological tensions are often heightened by perceptions that the benefits of new technologies will accrue only to small sections of society while the risks will be more widely distributed. Similarly, innovations that threaten to alter cultural identities tend to generate intense social concern. As such, societies that exhibit great economic and political inequities are likely to experience heightened technological controversies.Link

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Collaborate to Innovate? Teams and Patent Generation in a Global R&D Center

Collaborate to Innovate? Teams and Patent Generation in a Global R&D Center. Prithwiraj Choudhury, April 2016, Paper. “How should firms organize their employees to generate patents? Are larger teams better than smaller teams, and should their members span formal and informal intra-firm boundaries? We argue that larger teams face greater coordination costs and cooperation problems, and even greater challenges if they span more intra-firm boundaries. Hence, the relationship between team size and patent generation will be more negative if team members belong to more formal organizational units but more positive if they belong to more overlapping informal communities. We also predict that these moderating effects will be exponential rather than linear in form. We test the hypotheses using a proprietary dataset that combines patent data with fine-grained personnel data from the Indian R&D center of a Fortune 50 technology company.Link

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Financing Risk and Innovation

Financing Risk and Innovation. Ramana Nanda, Matthew Rhodes-Kropf, March 2016, Paper, “We provide a model of investment in new ventures that demonstrates why some places, times, and industries should be associated with a greater degree of experimentation by investors. Investors respond to financing risk, a forecast of limited future funding, by modifying their focus to finance less innovative firms. In equilibrium, financing risk disproportionately impacts innovative ventures with the greatest real option value by creating a trade-off between protecting the firm from financing risk and maximizing its real option value. We propose that extremely novel technologies may need ‘hot’ financial markets to get through the initial period of discovery or diffusion. This paper was accepted by Gustavo Manso, finance.Link

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