Found 310 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

An Account of One’s Own: Can Targeting Benefits Payments Address Social Constraints to Female Labor Force Participation?

An Account of One’s Own: Can Targeting Benefits Payments Address Social Constraints to Female Labor Force Participation? Rohini Pande, October 2016, Paper, “Although emerging economies have enjoyed robust growth in recent years, in many cases female labor force participation has remained low, or even fallen. India, where women often face highly restrictive gender norms regarding work and mobility, is a particularly stark negative outlier. In collaboration with the state government of Madhya Pradesh, we experimentally varied whether women’s wages from India’s public workfare program were deposited into female-owned bank accounts versus an account owned by the male household head.Link

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Innovation network

Innovation network. William Kerr, October 11, 2016, Paper, “We describe the strength and importance of the innovation network that links patenting technology fields together. We quantify that technological advances spill out of individual fields and enrich the work of neighboring technologies, but these spillovers are also localized and not universal. Thus, innovation advances in one part of the network can significantly impact nearby disciplines but rarely those very far away. We verify the strength and stable importance of the innovation network by showing how past innovations can predict future innovations in other fields over 10-y horizons. This better understanding of how scientific progress occurs and how inventions build upon themselves is an important input to our depictions of the cumulative process of innovation and its economic growth consequences.Link

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Political economy of Clinton’s ambitious energy program

Political economy of Clinton’s ambitious energy program. Joseph Aldy, 2016, Opinion, “Hillary Clinton’s campaign has stressed her continuity with Obama’s energy policy on key aspects such as decarbonization of the US economy, technological innovation and global cooperation. However, policy reforms to deliver long-term climate goals might be out of reach in a highly divided Congress.” Link

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Men not at work: Lawrence Summers on America’s hidden unemployment

Men not at work: Lawrence Summers on America’s hidden unemployment. Lawrence Summers, September 23, 2016, Opinion, “The impact of technology on the availability of work is much debated these days. It is widely feared that half the jobs in the economy might be eliminated by innovations such as self-driving vehicles, automatic checkout machines and expert systems that trade securities more effectively than humans can.Link

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Research and Impacts of Digital Financial Services

Research and Impacts of Digital Financial Services. Rohini Pande, September 2016, Paper, “A growing body of rigorous research shows that financial services innovations can have important positive impacts on wellbeing, but also that many do not. We first describe the latest evidence on what works in financial inclusion. Second, we summarize research on key financial market failures and on products and innovations that address specific mechanisms underlying them. We conclude by highlighting open areas for future work.Link

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Unpacking Team Diversity: An Integrative Multi-Level Model of Cross-Boundary Teaming

Unpacking Team Diversity: An Integrative Multi-Level Model of Cross-Boundary Teaming. Amy Edmondson, August 26, 2016, Paper, “Teaming across expertise boundaries, within and across organizations, is an increasingly popular strategy for innovation. Although membership diversity expands the range of perspectives that teams can draw upon to innovate, meta-analyses of the team-diversity literature have found weak or inconsistent support for that assumption. These studies also have typically examined effects of team diversity in relatively stable bounded teams, rather than in newly formed temporary groups.Link

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Empowering Minority Shareholders and Executive Compensation: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

Empowering Minority Shareholders and Executive Compensation: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. Jesse Fried, August 2016, Paper, “We use a recent regulatory change in Israel to examine the efficacy of minority shareholder approval. In 2011, the level of minority shareholder support required for approving related party transactions, including executive compensation paid to controlling shareholders or to their relatives, increased from a third to a majority of the minority votes cast, and a new rule required renewal of this approval every three years. Comparing changes in compensation following approvals before and after the reform, we find that only the new type of approval constrains compensation, and that this effect is present only when the firm does not choose the timing of the vote.Link

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Why Important Innovations Stall

Why Important Innovations Stall. Calestous Juma, July 6, 2016, Opinion. “Disruptive, transformative technologies are being introduced at an accelerating pace, fuelling opposition that impedes forms of innovation needed to meet profound challenges such as climate change, poverty and world hunger, says a new study from Harvard University.Link

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Innovation and Its Discontents

Innovation and Its Discontents. Calestous Juma, July 1, 2016, Opinion. “Technological innovation is often extolled for its power to overcome major development challenges, fuel economic growth, and propel societies forward. Yet innovations frequently face high barriers to implementation, with governments sometimes banning new technologies outright – even those that could bring far-reaching benefits.Link

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Can Paying Firms Quicker Affect Aggregate Employment?

Can Paying Firms Quicker Affect Aggregate Employment? Ramana Nanda, July 2016, Paper. “In 2011, the federal government accelerated payments to their small business contractors, spanning virtually every county and industry in the US. We study the impact of this reform on county-sector employment growth over the subsequent three years. Despite firms being paid just 15 days sooner, we find payroll increased 10 cents for each accelerated dollar, with two-thirds of the effect coming from an increase in new hires and the balance from an increase in earnings. Importantly, however, we document substantial crowding out of non-treated firms employment, particularly in counties with low rates of unemployment. Our results highlight an important channel through which financing constraints can be alleviated for small firms, but also emphasize the general-equilibrium effects of large-scale interventions, which can lead to a substantially lower net impact on aggregate outcomes …” Link

 

 

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