Found 313 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

New Development Economics – We Shall Experiment, but How Shall We Learn?

New Development Economics – We Shall Experiment, but How Shall We Learn? Dani Rodrik, 2008, Book Chapter, “Development economics has long been split between the study of macro-development (economic growth, international trade, and fiscal/macro-policies) and microdevelopment (microfinance, education, health, and other social programs). Even though the central…Link

Tags: , ,

Electrochemical Acceleration of Chemical Weathering as an Energetically Feasible Approach to Mitigating Anthropogenic Climate Change

Electrochemical Acceleration of Chemical Weathering as an Energetically Feasible Approach to Mitigating Anthropogenic Climate Change. Michael Aziz, Kurt Zenz House, Daniel Schrag, December 15, 2007, Paper. “We describe an approach to CO… capture and storage from the atmosphere that involves enhancing the solubility of CO… in the ocean by a process equivalent to the natural silicate weathering reaction. HCl is electrochemically removed from the ocean and neutralized through reaction with silicate rocks. The increase in ocean alkalinity resulting from the removal of HCl causes atmospheric CO… to dissolve into the…” Link

Tags: , , ,

Did the Death of Distance Hurt Detroit and Help New York?

Did the Death of Distance Hurt Detroit and Help New York? Edward Glaeser, Giacomo Ponzetto, December 2007, Paper. “Urban proximity can reduce the costs of shipping goods and speed the flow of ideas. Improvements in communication technology might erode these advantages and allow people and firms to decentralize. However, improvements in transportation and communication technology can also increase the returns to new ideas, by allowing those ideas to be used throughout the world. This paper presents a model that illustrates these two rival effects that technological progress can have on cities…” Link

Tags: , , ,

Profits and Politics: Coordinating Technology Adoption in Agriculture

Profits and Politics: Coordinating Technology Adoption in Agriculture, Rohini Pande, December 2007, Paper, “This paper examines the political economy of coordination in a simple two- sector model in which individuals’ choice of agricultural technology affects industrialization. We demonstrate the existence of multiple equilibria; the econ- omy is either characterized by the use of a traditional agricultural technology and a low level of industrialization or the use of a mechanized technology and a high level of industrialization. Relative to the traditional technology, the mechanized technology increases output but leaves some population groups worse off. We show that the distributional implications of choosing the mechanized technology restrict the possibility of Pareto-improving coordination by an elected policy-maker, even when we allow for income redistribution.” Link

Tags: , , ,

Latin America and The World Economy

Latin America and The World Economy. Dale Jorgenson, October 29, 2007, Book Chapter. “This paper analyzes the impact of investment in information technology (IT) on the recent resurgence of growth in Latin America and the world economy. We describe the growth of the world economy, seven regions, including Latin America, and fourteen major economies during the period 1989-2005. We allocate the growth of world output between input growth and productivity and find, surprisingly, that input growth greatly predominates! Moreover, differences in per capita output levels are explained by differences in per capita input, rather than…” Link

Tags: , ,

Entrepreneurship and the City

Entrepreneurship and the City. Edward Glaeser, October 2007, Paper. “Why do levels of entrepreneurship differ across America’s cities? This paper presents basic facts on two measures of entrepreneurship: the self-employment rate and the number of small firms. Both of these measures are correlated with urban success, suggesting that more entrepreneurial cities are more successful. There is considerable variation in the self-employment rate across metropolitan areas, but about one-half of this heterogeneity can be explained by demographic and industrial variation. Self-employment is particularly associated with abundant, older…” Link

Tags: , ,

The Product Space Conditions in the Development of Nations

The Product Space Conditions in the Development of Nations. Ricardo Hausmann, July 27, 2007, Paper. “Economies grow by upgrading the products they produce and export. The technology, capital, institutions, and skills needed to make newer products are more easily adapted from some products than from others. Here, we study this network of relatedness between products, or “product space,” finding that more-sophisticated products are located in a densely connected core whereas less-sophisticated products occupy a less-connected periphery. Empirically, countries move through the product space by developing goods close to those…” Link

Tags: , , ,

Structural Transformation in Chile

Structural Transformation in Chile. Ricardo Hausmann, June 2007, Paper. “Chile’s robust economic growth during Latin America’s period of economic stagnation has earned it the reputation of an economic star. However, the impressive growth during the 1980s and 1990s seems to be cooling down. The following figure shows GDP per worker and investment per worker from 1960 to 2004, both of which level off in the late 1990s…” Link

Tags: , , ,

Confronting the Climate-Energy Challenge

Confronting the Climate-Energy Challenge. Daniel Schrag, June 2007, Paper. “Combustion of coal, oil, and gas has raised the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to levels higher than they have been for millions of years. A brief review of the history of Earth’s climate puts the next hundred years in its natural context, suggesting that most predictions based on climate models may be underestimating the problem. Reducing risks of future climate change requires changes in existing energy systems. These changes will be in three areas: increasing energy efficiency, increasing the stock of non-fossil energy generation…” Link

Tags: , ,

The Structure of the Product Space and the Evolution of Comparative Advantage

The Structure of the Product Space and the Evolution of Comparative Advantage, Ricardo Hausmann, April 2007, Paper, This paper establishes a robust stylized fact: changes in the revealed comparative advantage of nations are governed by the pattern of relatedness of products at the global level. As countries change their export mix, there is a strong tendency to move towards related goods rather than to goods that are farther away. The pattern of relatedness of products is only very partially explained by similarity in broad factor or technological intensities, suggesting that the relevant determinants are much more product-specific. Moreover, the pattern of relatedness of products exhibits very strong heterogeneity: there are parts of this ‘product space’ that are dense while others are sparse. Link

Tags: , , ,