Found 310 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

Green Cities, Brown Suburbs

Green Cities, Brown Suburbs. Edward Glaeser, January 2009, Paper. “Contends that much local environmentalism, with its anti-development posture, is, in fact, bad for the environment & that urban development leaves a smaller carbon footprint than low-density suburbs. Attention is given to CA’s building restrictions, asserting that the state has things backwards…” Link

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POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS?

POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS? Rohini Pande, January 2009: Paper: “We exploit random assignment of gender quotas for leadership positions across Indian village councils to show that prior exposure to a female leader is associated with electoral gains for women. After ten years of quotas, women are more likely to stand for, and win, elected positions in councils required to have a female chief councilor in the previous two elections. We provide experimental and survey evidence on one channel of influence – changes in voter attitudes. Prior exposure to a female chief councilor improves perceptions of female leader effectiveness and weakens stereotypes about gender roles in public and domestic spheres.” Link

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Innovation and Institutional Ownership

Innovation and Institutional Ownership. Philippe Aghion, November 17, 2008, Paper. “We find that institutional ownership in publicly traded companies is associated with more innovation (measured as cited-weighted patents), even after controlling for a possible endogeneity of institutional ownership. To explore the mechanism through which this link arises, we build a model that nests managerial laziness with career-concern considerations, where institutional ownership increases the incentives managers have to innovate by…” Link

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Academic Freedom, Private-Sector Focus, and the Process of Innovation

Academic Freedom, Private-Sector Focus, and the Process of Innovation. Jeremy Stein, Philippe Aghion, September 16, 2008, Paper. “We develop a model that clarifies the respective advantages and disadvantages of academic and private-sector research. Rather than relying on lack of appropriability or spillovers to generate a rationale for academic research, we emphasize control-rights considerations, and argue that the fundamental tradeoff between academia and the private sector is one of creative control versus focus. By serving as a precommitment mechanism that allows scientists to freely pursue their own interests…” Link

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The Energy Penalty of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture & Storage and its Implications for Retrofitting the U.S. Installed Base

The Energy Penalty of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture & Storage and its Implications for Retrofitting the U.S. Installed Base. Kurt Zenz House, Michael Aziz, Daniel Schrag, July 8, 2008, Paper. “A review of the literature has found a factor of 4 spread in the estimated values of the energy penalty for post-combustion capture and storage of CO from pulverized-coal (PC) fired power plants. We elucidate the cause of that spread by deriving an analytic relationship for the energy penalty from thermodynamic principles and by identifying which variables are most difficult to constrain. We define the energy penalty for CCS to be the fraction of fuel…” Link

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Examining Beneficiation

Examining Beneficiation, Ricardo Hausmann, Robert Lawrence, May 2008, Paper, Beneficiation, moving downstream, and promoting greater value added in natural resources are very common policy initiatives to stimulate new export sectors in developing countries, largely based on the premise that this is a natural and logical path for structural transformation. But upon closer examination, we find that very few countries that export raw materials also export their processed forms, or transition to greater processing. Link

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New Development Economics – We Shall Experiment, but How Shall We Learn?

New Development Economics – We Shall Experiment, but How Shall We Learn? Dani Rodrik, 2008, Book Chapter, “Development economics has long been split between the study of macro-development (economic growth, international trade, and fiscal/macro-policies) and microdevelopment (microfinance, education, health, and other social programs). Even though the central…Link

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Electrochemical Acceleration of Chemical Weathering as an Energetically Feasible Approach to Mitigating Anthropogenic Climate Change

Electrochemical Acceleration of Chemical Weathering as an Energetically Feasible Approach to Mitigating Anthropogenic Climate Change. Michael Aziz, Kurt Zenz House, Daniel Schrag, December 15, 2007, Paper. “We describe an approach to CO… capture and storage from the atmosphere that involves enhancing the solubility of CO… in the ocean by a process equivalent to the natural silicate weathering reaction. HCl is electrochemically removed from the ocean and neutralized through reaction with silicate rocks. The increase in ocean alkalinity resulting from the removal of HCl causes atmospheric CO… to dissolve into the…” Link

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Did the Death of Distance Hurt Detroit and Help New York?

Did the Death of Distance Hurt Detroit and Help New York? Edward Glaeser, Giacomo Ponzetto, December 2007, Paper. “Urban proximity can reduce the costs of shipping goods and speed the flow of ideas. Improvements in communication technology might erode these advantages and allow people and firms to decentralize. However, improvements in transportation and communication technology can also increase the returns to new ideas, by allowing those ideas to be used throughout the world. This paper presents a model that illustrates these two rival effects that technological progress can have on cities…” Link

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