Found 310 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

Linking the Growth of Globalisation with the Evolution of Transport Technology

Linking the Growth of Globalisation with the Evolution of Transport Technology. Tom Nicholas, January 29, 2017, Paper, “We examine the golden age of U.S. innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking historical U.S. patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long-run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We find a positive relationship between innovation and drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development and geographic connectedness. We also explore the impact of social structure measured by slavery and religion.Link

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Technology Beats Corruption

Technology Beats Corruption, Rema Hanna, January 20, 2017, Paper, “More than 1.9 billion individuals in the developing world benefit from social safety net programs: noncontributory transfer programs that distribute cash or basic in-kind products to the poor. But despite their importance, high levels of corruption often stifle the effectiveness of these programs. If cash transfer programs are particularly prone to graft, then in-kind programs should be preferred in practice. In a recent paper, Muralidharan et al. report evidence to the contrary by showing that use of a modern banking technology—biometric smart cards—can help to drastically reduce corruption in cash transfer programs.Link

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When Novel Rituals Impact Intergroup Bias: Evidence from Economic Games and Neurophysiology

When Novel Rituals Impact Intergroup Bias: Evidence from Economic Games and Neurophysiology. Francesca Gino, Michael Norton, January 17, 2017, Paper, “Long-established rituals in pre-existing cultural groups have been linked to the cultural evolution of group cooperation. Here we test the prediction that novel rituals – arbitrary hand and body gestures enacted in a stereotypical and repeated fashion – can impact intergroup bias in newly formed groups. In four studies, participants practiced novel rituals at home for one week (Experiments 1, 2, 4) or once in the lab (pre-registered Experiment 3), and were divided into minimal ingroups and outgroups. Our results offer mixed support for the hypothesis that novel rituals promote intergroup bias. A modest effect for daily repeated rituals but a null effect for rituals enacted only once suggests that novel rituals can inculcate bias, but only when certain features are present: rituals must be sufficiently elaborate and repeated to impact bias. Taken together, our results offer modest support for the influence of novel rituals on intergroup bias.Link

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Stop Waiting for Governments to Close the Skills Gap

Stop Waiting for Governments to Close the Skills Gap. George Serafeim, January 11, 2017, Case, “Donald Trump was elected with the promise to “make America great again.” But America was already great for some people. For example, America has been good for investors: The Dow Jones was at a record high before Trump got elected, and it has risen further since the election. But the country has not been great for workers, who have seen their wages stagnate or decline over the past 15–20 years. America needs to become a great place to work again. And this will only happen if we align the interests of workers and investors such that companies focus on worker well-being to deliver better financial results.Link

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The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age

The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age. Tom Nicholas, January 2017, Paper, “We examine the golden age of US innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking US patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We explore drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development, geographic connectedness and social structure. We then profile the characteristics of inventors and their life cycle, measure the returns to technological development, and document the relationship between innovation, inequality and social mobility. Our new data help to address important questions related to innovation and long-run growth dynamics.Link

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Harvard Hosts Forum on Feeding the Planet During Climate Change

Harvard Hosts Forum on Feeding the Planet During Climate Change. Calestous Juma, December 19, 2016, Video, “A forum on “The Future of Food, Feeding the Planet During Climate Change” took place at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and was presented jointly with the Public Radio International program, “The World,” and WGBH on Tuesday, December 13.Link

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Electricity Market Design: Political Economy and the Clean Energy Transition

Electricity Market Design: Political Economy and the Clean Energy Transition. William Hogan, November 9, 2016, Paper, “The focus on the electricity sector’s role in addressing climate change through improved efficiency, development of renewable energy, and use of low carbon fuels creates expanded demands for and of electricity restructuring.Link

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Harnessing the Best of Globalization

Harnessing the Best of Globalization. William Kerr, Fall 2016, Paper, “Executives in large companies are seeking to harness globalization in new ways when launching their ventures — and for good reason. The opportunities for global businesses are expanding thanks to rapidly emerging product markets, the worldwide race for talent, and the widening impact of digitization. Moreover, success stories such as Airbnb Inc., Uber Technologies Inc., and Rocket Internet SE are spurring the imaginations of new entrepreneurs while highlighting the vulnerability of many traditional businesses.Link

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