Found 304 article(s) in category 'Innovation'

Innovation Policy and the Economy: Introduction to Volume 17

Innovation Policy and the Economy: Introduction to Volume 17. Josh Lerner, 2017, Paper, “This volume is the Seventeenth annual volume of the National Bureau of Economic
Research (NBER) Innovation Policy (IPE) group. The IPE group seeks to provide an accessible
forum to bring the work of leading academic researchers to an audience of policymakers and
those interested in the interaction between public policy and innovation.Link

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Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity

Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity. Tom Nicholas, February 2017, Paper, “This paper builds on the analysis in Akcigit, Grigsby, and Nicholas (2017) by using US patent and Census data to examine macro and micro-level aspects of the relationship between immigration and innovation. We construct a measure of “foreign born expertise” and show that technology areas where immigrant inventors were prevalent between 1880 and 1940 experienced more patenting and citations between 1940 and 2000. We also show that immigrant inventors were more productive during their life cycle than native born inventors, although they received significantly lower levels of labor income than their native born counterparts. Overall, the contribution of foreign born inventors to US innovation was substantial, but we also find evidence of an immigrant inventor wage-gap that cannot be explained by differentials in productivity.Link

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What the Companies on the Right Side of the Digital Business Divide Have in Common

What the Companies on the Right Side of the Digital Business Divide Have in Common. Marco Iansiti, Karim Lakhani, January 31, 2017, Paper, “In just a few years digital technology has connected an ever-growing number of people, sensors, and devices. It’s created new business and social networks, resulted in new ecosystems, and transformed our economy. Of course, not all organizations have responded to it in the same way. While some have invested significantly in technology, operational, and cultural changes, others are lagging behind. Our research shows that digital transformation is paying off for those who embrace it: Digitally transformed organizations (“digital leaders”) performed much better than organizations that lagged behind (“digital laggards”), effectively creating a “digital divide” across companies.Link

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Can Paying Firms More Quickly Affect Aggregate Employment

Can Paying Firms More Quickly Affect Aggregate Employment. Ramana Nanda, January 2017, Paper, “We study the impact of Quickpay, a federal reform that indefinitely accelerated payments to small business contractors of the U.S. government. Despite treated firms being paid just 15 days sooner, we find a strong direct effect of the reform on county-sector employment growth. Importantly, however, we also document substantial crowding out of non-treated firms’ employment within local labor markets. While the overall net employment effect was positive, it was close to zero in tight labor markets – where direct effects were weaker and crowding out stronger. Our results highlight an important channel for alleviating financing constraints in small firms, but also emphasize the general-equilibrium effects of large-scale interventions, which can lead to lower aggregate outcomes depending on labor market conditions.Link

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Technology Beats Corruption

Technology Beats Corruption, Rema Hanna, January 20, 2017, Paper, “More than 1.9 billion individuals in the developing world benefit from social safety net programs: noncontributory transfer programs that distribute cash or basic in-kind products to the poor. But despite their importance, high levels of corruption often stifle the effectiveness of these programs. If cash transfer programs are particularly prone to graft, then in-kind programs should be preferred in practice. In a recent paper, Muralidharan et al. report evidence to the contrary by showing that use of a modern banking technology—biometric smart cards—can help to drastically reduce corruption in cash transfer programs.Link

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When Novel Rituals Impact Intergroup Bias: Evidence from Economic Games and Neurophysiology

When Novel Rituals Impact Intergroup Bias: Evidence from Economic Games and Neurophysiology. Francesca Gino, Michael Norton, January 17, 2017, Paper, “Long-established rituals in pre-existing cultural groups have been linked to the cultural evolution of group cooperation. Here we test the prediction that novel rituals – arbitrary hand and body gestures enacted in a stereotypical and repeated fashion – can impact intergroup bias in newly formed groups. In four studies, participants practiced novel rituals at home for one week (Experiments 1, 2, 4) or once in the lab (pre-registered Experiment 3), and were divided into minimal ingroups and outgroups. Our results offer mixed support for the hypothesis that novel rituals promote intergroup bias. A modest effect for daily repeated rituals but a null effect for rituals enacted only once suggests that novel rituals can inculcate bias, but only when certain features are present: rituals must be sufficiently elaborate and repeated to impact bias. Taken together, our results offer modest support for the influence of novel rituals on intergroup bias.Link

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Stop Waiting for Governments to Close the Skills Gap

Stop Waiting for Governments to Close the Skills Gap. George Serafeim, January 11, 2017, Case, “Donald Trump was elected with the promise to “make America great again.” But America was already great for some people. For example, America has been good for investors: The Dow Jones was at a record high before Trump got elected, and it has risen further since the election. But the country has not been great for workers, who have seen their wages stagnate or decline over the past 15–20 years. America needs to become a great place to work again. And this will only happen if we align the interests of workers and investors such that companies focus on worker well-being to deliver better financial results.Link

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The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age

The Rise of American Ingenuity: Innovation and Inventors of the Golden Age. Tom Nicholas, January 2017, Paper, “We examine the golden age of US innovation by undertaking a major data collection exercise linking US patents to state and county-level aggregates and matching inventors to Federal Censuses between 1880 and 1940. We identify a causal relationship between patented inventions and long run economic growth and outline a basic framework for analyzing key macro and micro-level determinants. We explore drivers of regional performance including population density, financial development, geographic connectedness and social structure. We then profile the characteristics of inventors and their life cycle, measure the returns to technological development, and document the relationship between innovation, inequality and social mobility. Our new data help to address important questions related to innovation and long-run growth dynamics.Link

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Harvard Hosts Forum on Feeding the Planet During Climate Change

Harvard Hosts Forum on Feeding the Planet During Climate Change. Calestous Juma, December 19, 2016, Video, “A forum on “The Future of Food, Feeding the Planet During Climate Change” took place at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and was presented jointly with the Public Radio International program, “The World,” and WGBH on Tuesday, December 13.Link

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