Found 503 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

E-governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India

E-governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India. Rohini Pande, October 16, 2016, Paper, “In collaboration with the Government of Bihar, India, we conducted a large-scale experiment to evaluate whether transparency in fiscal transfer systems can increase accountability and reduce corruption in the implementation of a workfare program. The reforms introduced electronic fund-flow, cut out administrative tiers, and switched the basis of transfer amounts from forecasts to documented expenditures. Treatment reduced leakages along three measures: expenditures and hours claimed dropped while an independent household survey found no impact on actual employment and wages received; a matching exercise reveals a reduction in fake households on payrolls; and local program officials’ self-reported median personal assets fell.Link

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Budgeting for Equity: How Can Participatory Budgeting Advance Equity in the United States?

Budgeting for Equity: How Can Participatory Budgeting Advance Equity in the United States? Josh Lerner, 2016, Paper, “Participatory budgeting (PB) has expanded dramatically in the United States (US) from a pilot process in Chicago’s 49th ward in 2009 to over 50 processes in a dozen cities in 2015. Over this period, scholars, practitioners, and advocates have made two distinct but related claims about its impacts: that it can revitalize democracy and advance equity. In practice, however, achieving the latter has often proven challenging. Based on interviews with PB practitioners from across the US, we argue that an equity-driven model of PB is not simply about improving the quality of deliberation or reducing barriers to participation. While both of these factors are critically important, we identify three additional challenges…Link

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Securing Property Rights

Securing Property Rights. Edward Glaeser, Andrei Shleifer, September 2016, Paper, “A central challenge in securing property rights is the subversion of justice through legal skill, bribery, or physical force by the strong—the state or its powerful citizens—against the weak. We present evidence that the less educated and poorer citizens in many countries feel their property rights are least secure. We then present a model of a farmer and a mine which can pollute his farm in a jurisdiction where the mine can subvert law enforcement. We show that, in this model, injunctions or other forms of property rules work better than compensation for damage or liability rules. The equivalences of the Coase Theorem break down in realistic ways. The case for injunctions is even stronger when parties can invest in power. Our approach sheds light on several controversies in law and economics, but also applies to practical problems in developing countries, such as low demand for formality, law enforcement under uncertain property rights, and unresolved conflicts between environmental damage and development.Link

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Globalization, Inequality and Welfare

Globalization, Inequality and Welfare. Pol Antras, September 19, 2016, Paper, “This paper studies the welfare implications of trade opening in a world in which trade raises aggregate income but also increases income inequality, and in which redistribution needs to occur via a distortionary income tax-transfer system. We provide tools to characterize and quantify the effects of trade opening on the distribution of disposable income (after redistribution). We propose two adjustments to standard measures of the welfare gains from trade: a ‘welfarist’ correction inspired by the Atkinson (1970) index of inequality, and a ‘costly-redistribution’ correction capturing the efficiency costs associated with the behavioral responses of agents to trade-induced shifts across marginal tax rates.Link

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Radical or Righteous? Using Gender to Shape Public Perceptions

Radical or Righteous? Using Gender to Shape Public Perceptions. Jocelyn Viterna, 2016, Book Chapter, “Yes,(I was) with the guerrillas, because they are the ones who defended us. Because without them, who knows, maybe we would have left fleeing and gone right where the enemy was. Put they went in front of us. Yes, the guerrillas. Our guerrillas. Part of us. After …Link

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Why Diversity Programs Fail

Why Diversity Programs Fail. Frank Dobbin, August 2016, Paper, “Businesses started caring a lot more about diversity after a series of high-profile lawsuits rocked the financial industry. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Morgan Stanley shelled out $54 million—and Smith Barney and Merrill Lynch more than $100 million each—to settle sex discrimination claims. In 2007, Morgan was back at the table, facing a new class action, which cost the company $46 million. In 2013, Bank of America Merrill Lynch settled a race discrimination suit for $160 million. Cases like these brought Merrill’s total 15-year payout to nearly half a billion dollars.Link

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Unpacking Team Diversity: An Integrative Multi-Level Model of Cross-Boundary Teaming

Unpacking Team Diversity: An Integrative Multi-Level Model of Cross-Boundary Teaming. Amy Edmondson, August 26, 2016, Paper, “Teaming across expertise boundaries, within and across organizations, is an increasingly popular strategy for innovation. Although membership diversity expands the range of perspectives that teams can draw upon to innovate, meta-analyses of the team-diversity literature have found weak or inconsistent support for that assumption. These studies also have typically examined effects of team diversity in relatively stable bounded teams, rather than in newly formed temporary groups.Link

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Reducing Inequality and Poverty in America

Reducing Inequality and Poverty in America. Martin Feldstein, August 23, 2016, Opinion, “With a new American president and Congress taking office just six months from now, the time has come to rethink the government’s programs aimed at helping the poor. The current election season has reflected widespread concern about the issue of inequality. Reducing poverty, rather than penalizing earned success, is the right focus for dealing with it.” Link

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Understanding the Socioeconomic Gradient in Disability Insurance Receipt

Understanding the Socioeconomic Gradient in Disability Insurance Receipt. David Cutler, August 3, 2016, Paper, “There is a well-known socioeconomic gradient in disability insurance receipt. As Figure 1 shows, 9.0% of people aged 50-52 with a high school degree or less receive Social Security Disability Insurance or Supplemental Security Insurance, compared to 4.3% of those with some college or more.  As people age, the gap between the more and less educated expands. Between the low 50s and the low 60s, SSDI/SSI receipt rises by 6.2 percentage points among the less educated, compared to only 2.4 percentage points among the better educated. The result is that one in six people with a high school degree or less is receiving SSDI/SSI by age 62, compared to one in fifteen people with some college education. Understanding why disability insurance receipt is so tilted to the less educated is key to evaluating the economic importance of disability insurance as well as forecasting future trends.Link

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