Found 518 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Inequality and Corruption: Evidence from US States

Inequality and Corruption: Evidence from US States, James E. Alt, August 25, 2008, Paper. “High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee’s or official’s decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector…” Link

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Housing Supply and Housing Bubbles

Housing Supply and Housing Bubbles. Edward Glaeser, July 16, 2008, Paper. “Like many other assets, housing prices are quite volatile relative to observable changes in fundamentals. If we are going to understand boom-bust housing cycles, we must incorporate housing supply. In this paper, we present a simple model of housing bubbles that predicts that places with more elastic housing supply have fewer and shorter bubbles, with smaller price increases. However, the welfare consequences of bubbles may actually be higher in more elastic places because those places will overbuild more in response to a bubble…” Link

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What Can We Learn about Neighborhood Effects from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment?

What Can We Learn about Neighborhood Effects from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment? Lawrence Katz, Jeffrey Liebman, Ronald Kessler, July 2008, Paper. “Experimental estimates from Moving to Opportunity (MTO) show no significant impacts of moves to lower-poverty neighborhoods on adult economic self-sufficiency four to seven years after random assignment. The authors disagree with Clampet-Lundquist and Massey’s claim that MTO was a weak intervention and therefore uninformative about neighborhood effects. MTO produced large changes in neighborhood environments that improved adult…” Link

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Why Doesn’t Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries? An Empirical Investigation

Why Doesn’t Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries? An Empirical Investigation. Laura Alfaro, May 2008, Paper. “We examine the empirical role of different explanations for the lack of flows of capital from rich to poor countries—the ‘Lucas Paradox.’ The theoretical explanations include cross country differences in fundamentals that affect productivity and capital market imperfections. We show that during 1970−2000 low institutional quality is the leading explanation. Improving Peru’s institutional quality to Australia’s level implies a quadrupling of foreign investmentRecent studies emphasize the role of…” Link

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The Global Gender Gap Report 2008

The Global Gender Gap Report 2008. Ricardo Hausmann, 2008, Paper. In the midst of the current economic downturn, policy-makers and business leaders are struggling to manage short-term shocks, prepare their economies to perform well in a medium-term economic landscape characterized by growing volatility and develop institutions and regulations to stave off such crises in the future. It is more important now than ever before for countries and companies to pay heed to one of the fundamental cornerstones of economic growth available to them…” Link

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Transitions: Career and Family Life Cycles of the Educational Elite

Transitions: Career and Family Life Cycles of the Educational Elite. Lawrence Katz, Claudia Goldin, 2008, Paper. “Among life’s most vital transitions are those concerning family and career. We decide when and whom to marry, how many children to have, whether to further our education, and which occupations and jobs to pursue. Fundamental aspects of these transitions began to change around the early 1970s for the college educated generally, and for women in particular. The median age at first marriage among college graduate women, which had been stable at about 22.5 years old from the 1950s to the early 1970s (for birth cohorts from…” Link

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Segregation, Rent Control, and Riots: The Economics of Religious Conflict in an Indian City

Segregation, Rent Control, and Riots: The Economics of Religious Conflict in an Indian City. Erica Field, Rohini Pande, January 2008, Paper: Religious conflict is an important problem in many ethnically diverse countries (Horowitz 1985). A growing literature in economics suggests that conflict over resources is frequently at the root of such violence (see, for instance, Este- ban and Ray 2007). A number of recent empirical papers provide evidence that negative economic shocks to a community, and the consequent struggle for control over resources, can help explain the eruption of historic tensions into acts of violence.” Link

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Exploring the Impact of Financial Incentives on Stereotype Threat: Evidence from a Pilot Study

Exploring the Impact of Financial Incentives on Stereotype Threat: Evidence from a Pilot Study. Roland Fryer, 2008, Paper, “Motivated in part by large and persistent gender gaps in labor market outcomes (e.g., Claudia Goldin 1994; Joseph G. Altonji and Rebecca M. Blank 1998), a large body of experimental research has been devoted to understanding gender differences in behavior and responses to stimuli.1 An influential finding in experimental psychology is the presence of stereotype threat: making gender salient induces large gender gaps in performance on math tests (Steven J. Spencer, Claude M. Steele, and Diane M. Quinn 1999). For instance, when Spencer et al. (1999) informed subjects that women tended to under perform men on the math test they were about to take, women’s test scores dropped by 50 per? cent or more compared to a similar math test in which subjects were not informed of previous gender differences.Link

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Long-Run Changes in the U.S. Wage Structure: Narrowing, Widening, Polarizing

Long-Run Changes in the U.S. Wage Structure: Narrowing, Widening, Polarizing. Lawrence Katz, Claudia Goldin, November 2007, Paper. “The U.S. wage structure evolved across the last century: narrowing from 1910 to 1950, fairly stable in the 1950s and 1960s, widening rapidly during the 1980s, and “polarizing” since the late 1980s. We document the spectacular rise of U.S. wage inequality after 1980 and place recent changes into a century-long historical perspective to understand the sources of change. The majority of the increase in wage inequality since 1980 can be accounted for by rising educational wage differentials, just as a…” Link

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Slavery, Inequality, and Economic Development in the Americas: An Examination of the Engerman-Sokoloff Hypothesis

Slavery, Inequality, and Economic Development in the Americas: An Examination of the Engerman-Sokoloff Hypothesis, Nathan Nunn, October 2007, Book Chapter. “Recent research argues that among former New World colonies a nation’s past dependence on slave labor was important for its subsequent economic development (Engerman and Sokoloff, 1997, 2002). It is argued that specialization in plantation agriculture, with its use of slave labor, caused economic inequality, which concentrated power in the hands of a small elite, adversely affecting the development of domestic institutions needed for sustained economic growth…” Link

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