Found 526 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS?

POWERFUL WOMEN: DOES EXPOSURE REDUCE BIAS? Rohini Pande, January 2009: Paper: “We exploit random assignment of gender quotas for leadership positions across Indian village councils to show that prior exposure to a female leader is associated with electoral gains for women. After ten years of quotas, women are more likely to stand for, and win, elected positions in councils required to have a female chief councilor in the previous two elections. We provide experimental and survey evidence on one channel of influence – changes in voter attitudes. Prior exposure to a female chief councilor improves perceptions of female leader effectiveness and weakens stereotypes about gender roles in public and domestic spheres.” Link

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Variance Function Regressions for Studying Inequality

Variance Function Regressions for Studying Inequality. Bruce Western, January 2009, Paper. “Regression-based studies of inequality model only between-group differences, yet often these differences are far exceeded by residual inequality. Residual inequality is usually attributed to measurement error or the influence of unobserved characteristics. We present a regression that includes covariates for both the mean and variance of a dependent variable. In this model, the residual variance is treated as a target for analysis. In analyses of inequality, the residual variance might be interpreted as measuring risk or insecurity …” Link

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Widening Inequality Combined with Modest Growth

Widening Inequality Combined with Modest Growth. Benjamin Friedman, January 2009, Paper. “The crisis triggered by the collapse of subprime mortgage lending in the United States has already resulted in the worst financial turmoil since the 1930s. The U.S. economy is now in recession, and the public is anxiously watching to see just how badly, and for how long, these events in the financial markets will depress non-financial economic activity. Business in most other industrialized countries is slipping as well. Most citizens, in most countries, fear that their incomes and perhaps their living standards as well will suffer…” Link

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Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets

Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets. Bruce Western, 2009, Paper. “A large body of theoretical and empirical research would lead us to predict a steady decline in discrimination, but several features of contemporary low-wage labor markets may function to sustain or renew racialized decision-making. Shifts in the composition of both low-wage jobs and workers have potentially created new incentives and opportunities for employers to enact racial preferences in the selection of workers.Link

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The New Development Economics

The New Development Economics. Dani Rodrik, October 29, 2008, Book Chapter. “Development economics is split between macro-development economists – who focus on economic growth, international trade, and fiscal/macro policies – and micro-development economists – who study microfinance, education, health, and other social programs. Recently there has been substantial convergence in the policy mindset exhibited by micro evaluation enthusiasts, on the one hand, and growth diagnosticians, on the other. At the same time, the randomized evaluation revolution has led to an accentuation of the methodological divergence…Link

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The Economics of Place-Making Policies

The Economics of Place-Making Policies. Edward Glaeser, Joshua Gottlieb, October 2008, Paper. “Should the national government undertake policies aimed at strengthening the economies of particular localities or regions? Agglomeration economies and human capital spillovers suggest that such policies could enhance welfare. However, the mere existence of agglomeration externalities does not indicate which places should be subsidized. Without a better understanding of nonlinearities in these externalities, any government spatial policy is as likely to reduce as to increase welfare. Transportation spending has historically done…” Link

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Simple Humans, Complex Insurance, Subtle Subsidies

Simple Humans, Complex Insurance, Subtle Subsidies. Jeffrey Liebman, Richard Zeckhauser, September 2008, Paper. “The behavioral revolution in economics has demonstrated that human beings often have difficulty making wise choices. The most widely chronicled difficulties arise for decisions made under conditions of uncertainty, those whose consequences unfold over significant amounts of time, and decisions made in complex environments. Unfortunately, these are precisely the elements involved when individuals choose a health insurance policy, or decide whether to consume health care services. In this paper, we argue that…” Link

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Assessing the Importance of Financial Literacy

Assessing the Importance of Financial Literacy. Shawn Cole, September 2008, Paper. “Financial decisions can be difficult. Comparing savings or borrowing options with different interest rates and term structures can be difficult for those without financial savvy—and even a knowledgeable individual may need to rely on calculators or spreadsheets to make truly informed decisions. Yet, many households are not knowledgeable, and often receive little assistance when making these decisions. Moreover, unlike the decision to visit a restaurant or purchase a particular car, customers may not receive useful feedback on the value…Link

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Inequality and Corruption: Evidence from US States

Inequality and Corruption: Evidence from US States, James E. Alt, August 25, 2008, Paper. “High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee’s or official’s decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector…” Link

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Housing Supply and Housing Bubbles

Housing Supply and Housing Bubbles. Edward Glaeser, July 16, 2008, Paper. “Like many other assets, housing prices are quite volatile relative to observable changes in fundamentals. If we are going to understand boom-bust housing cycles, we must incorporate housing supply. In this paper, we present a simple model of housing bubbles that predicts that places with more elastic housing supply have fewer and shorter bubbles, with smaller price increases. However, the welfare consequences of bubbles may actually be higher in more elastic places because those places will overbuild more in response to a bubble…” Link

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