Found 503 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets

Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets. Bruce Western, 2009, Paper. “A large body of theoretical and empirical research would lead us to predict a steady decline in discrimination, but several features of contemporary low-wage labor markets may function to sustain or renew racialized decision-making. Shifts in the composition of both low-wage jobs and workers have potentially created new incentives and opportunities for employers to enact racial preferences in the selection of workers.Link

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The New Development Economics

The New Development Economics. Dani Rodrik, October 29, 2008, Book Chapter. “Development economics is split between macro-development economists – who focus on economic growth, international trade, and fiscal/macro policies – and micro-development economists – who study microfinance, education, health, and other social programs. Recently there has been substantial convergence in the policy mindset exhibited by micro evaluation enthusiasts, on the one hand, and growth diagnosticians, on the other. At the same time, the randomized evaluation revolution has led to an accentuation of the methodological divergence…Link

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The Economics of Place-Making Policies

The Economics of Place-Making Policies. Edward Glaeser, Joshua Gottlieb, October 2008, Paper. “Should the national government undertake policies aimed at strengthening the economies of particular localities or regions? Agglomeration economies and human capital spillovers suggest that such policies could enhance welfare. However, the mere existence of agglomeration externalities does not indicate which places should be subsidized. Without a better understanding of nonlinearities in these externalities, any government spatial policy is as likely to reduce as to increase welfare. Transportation spending has historically done…” Link

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Simple Humans, Complex Insurance, Subtle Subsidies

Simple Humans, Complex Insurance, Subtle Subsidies. Jeffrey Liebman, Richard Zeckhauser, September 2008, Paper. “The behavioral revolution in economics has demonstrated that human beings often have difficulty making wise choices. The most widely chronicled difficulties arise for decisions made under conditions of uncertainty, those whose consequences unfold over significant amounts of time, and decisions made in complex environments. Unfortunately, these are precisely the elements involved when individuals choose a health insurance policy, or decide whether to consume health care services. In this paper, we argue that…” Link

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Assessing the Importance of Financial Literacy

Assessing the Importance of Financial Literacy. Shawn Cole, September 2008, Paper. “Financial decisions can be difficult. Comparing savings or borrowing options with different interest rates and term structures can be difficult for those without financial savvy—and even a knowledgeable individual may need to rely on calculators or spreadsheets to make truly informed decisions. Yet, many households are not knowledgeable, and often receive little assistance when making these decisions. Moreover, unlike the decision to visit a restaurant or purchase a particular car, customers may not receive useful feedback on the value…Link

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Inequality and Corruption: Evidence from US States

Inequality and Corruption: Evidence from US States, James E. Alt, August 25, 2008, Paper. “High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee’s or official’s decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector…” Link

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Housing Supply and Housing Bubbles

Housing Supply and Housing Bubbles. Edward Glaeser, July 16, 2008, Paper. “Like many other assets, housing prices are quite volatile relative to observable changes in fundamentals. If we are going to understand boom-bust housing cycles, we must incorporate housing supply. In this paper, we present a simple model of housing bubbles that predicts that places with more elastic housing supply have fewer and shorter bubbles, with smaller price increases. However, the welfare consequences of bubbles may actually be higher in more elastic places because those places will overbuild more in response to a bubble…” Link

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What Can We Learn about Neighborhood Effects from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment?

What Can We Learn about Neighborhood Effects from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment? Lawrence Katz, Jeffrey Liebman, Ronald Kessler, July 2008, Paper. “Experimental estimates from Moving to Opportunity (MTO) show no significant impacts of moves to lower-poverty neighborhoods on adult economic self-sufficiency four to seven years after random assignment. The authors disagree with Clampet-Lundquist and Massey’s claim that MTO was a weak intervention and therefore uninformative about neighborhood effects. MTO produced large changes in neighborhood environments that improved adult…” Link

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Why Doesn’t Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries? An Empirical Investigation

Why Doesn’t Capital Flow from Rich to Poor Countries? An Empirical Investigation. Laura Alfaro, May 2008, Paper. “We examine the empirical role of different explanations for the lack of flows of capital from rich to poor countries—the ‘Lucas Paradox.’ The theoretical explanations include cross country differences in fundamentals that affect productivity and capital market imperfections. We show that during 1970−2000 low institutional quality is the leading explanation. Improving Peru’s institutional quality to Australia’s level implies a quadrupling of foreign investmentRecent studies emphasize the role of…” Link

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The Global Gender Gap Report 2008

The Global Gender Gap Report 2008. Ricardo Hausmann, 2008, Paper. In the midst of the current economic downturn, policy-makers and business leaders are struggling to manage short-term shocks, prepare their economies to perform well in a medium-term economic landscape characterized by growing volatility and develop institutions and regulations to stave off such crises in the future. It is more important now than ever before for countries and companies to pay heed to one of the fundamental cornerstones of economic growth available to them…” Link

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