Found 526 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Challenges To Reducing Discrimination And Health Inequity Through Existing Civil Rights Laws

Challenges To Reducing Discrimination And Health Inequity Through Existing Civil Rights Laws. Amitabh Chandra, June 2017, Paper, “More than fifty years after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, health care for racial and ethnic minorities remains in many ways separate and unequal in the United States. Moreover, efforts to improve minority health care face challenges that differ from those confronted during de jure segregation. We review these challenges and examine whether stronger enforcement of existing civil rights legislation could help overcome them. We conclude that stronger enforcement of existing laws—for example, through executive orders to strengthen enforcement of the laws and congressional action to allow private individuals to bring lawsuits against providers who might have engaged in discrimination—would improve minority health care, but this approach is limited in what it can achieve.Link

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Having a Stake: Evidence and Implications for Broadbased Employee Stock Ownership and Profit Sharing

Having a Stake: Evidence and Implications for Broadbased Employee Stock Ownership and Profit Sharing. Richard Freeman, May 28, 2017, Paper, “At the center of the ongoing debate about the causes and cures of inequality in America today is the vast difference in wealth between owners and workers. As many have noted, that gap was not nearly as large in the middle of the twentieth century as it has become in the first two decades of the 21st century, where owners and other executives make many multiples of what workers make – largely through grants of stock in lieu of salary.Link

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The Ambition-Marriage Trade-Off Too Many Single Women Face

The Ambition-Marriage Trade-Off Too Many Single Women Face. Amanda Pallais, May 8, 2017, Paper, “Even today, research shows that men still prefer female partners who are less professionally ambitious than they are. Because of this, many single women face a trade-off: Actions that lead to professional success might be viewed less favorably in the heterosexual marriage market. This trade-off can be pervasive and is not limited to big decisions like volunteering for a leadership role or asking for a promotion. Daily activities such as speaking up in meetings, taking charge of a project, working late, or even certain outfits, haircuts, and makeup can be desirable in one market and not in the other.” Link

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Currency Politics in the Developing World

Currency Politics in the Developing World. Jeffry Frieden, Spring 2017, Paper, “The exchange rate is often said to be the most important price in any economy, for it affects all other prices. Americans are not used to thinking in these terms, in part because the US economy is relatively closed, and in part because the dollar is the world’s principal reserve currency. Nonetheless, a country’s exchange rate has a powerful impact on its economic activity, and this is especially true for developing countries. Because currency policy structures a country’s economic relations with the rest of the world, it can be crucial in determining a poor country’s developmental prospects.Link

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Subsidizing Health Insurance for Low-Income Adults: Evidence from Massachusetts and Implications for Future Health Reforms

Subsidizing Health Insurance for Low-Income Adults: Evidence from Massachusetts and Implications for Future Health Reforms. Nathaniel Hendren, Mark Shepard, May 2017, Paper, “How much are low-income individuals willing to pay for health insurance? What are the implications for insurance market reforms that change government subsidies? Using administrative data from Massachusetts’ subsidized insurance exchange in 2009-2013, we exploit discontinuities in the premium subsidy schedule to estimate willingness to pay and costs of insurance among low-income adults. We obtain three main results…Link

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The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census

The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census. Claudia Goldin, 2017, Paper, “The gender earnings gap is an expanding statistic over the lifecycle. We use the LEHD Census 2000 to understand the roles of industry, occupation, and establishment 14 years after leaving school. The gap for college graduates 26 to 39 years old expands by 34 log points, most occurring in the first 7 years. About 44 percent is due to disproportionate shifts by men into higher-earning positions, industries, and firms and about 56 percent to differential advances by gender within firms. Widening is greater for married individuals and for those in certain sectors. Non-college graduates experience less widening but with similar patterns.Link

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Household Matters: Revisiting the Returns to Capital among Female Micro-entrepreneurs

Household Matters: Revisiting the Returns to Capital among Female Micro-entrepreneurs. Rohini Pande, April 17, 2017, Paper, “Several field experiments find positive returns to grants for male and not female microentrepreneurs. But, these analyses largely overlook that male and female micro-entrepreneurs often belong to the same household. Using data from randomized trials in India, Sri Lanka and Ghana, we show that the gender gap in microenterprise performance is not due to a gap in aptitude. Instead, low average returns of female-run enterprises are observed because women’s capital is invested into their husbands’ enterprises rather than their own. When women are the sole household enterprise operator, capital shocks lead to large increases in profits. Household-level income gains are equivalent regardless of the grant or loan recipient’s gender.” Link

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Larry Summers Sees More Downside Risks

Larry Summers Sees More Downside Risks. Lawrence Summers, April 12, 2017, Video, “Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers said that while it’s difficult to call a market top, valuations have gotten ahead of the economy in recent months. “I’m not sure that I see what in the economy would justify a market move of the magnitude we’ve seen in the last months,” Summers said in an interview Wednesday on Bloomberg Television. “It wouldn’t surprise me if people look back and see that there was a bit of a sugar high in some of the valuations that we’re seeing.”” Link

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The Responsibilities and Role of Business in Relation to Society: Back to Basics?

The Responsibilities and Role of Business in Relation to Society: Back to Basics? Nien-hê Hsieh, April 11, 2017, Paper, “In this address, I outline a “back to basics” approach to specifying the responsibilities and role of business in relation to society. Three “basics” comprise the approach. The first is arguing that basic principles of ordinary morality, such as a duty not to harm, provide an adequate basis for specifying the responsibilities of business managers. The second is framing the role of business in society by looking to the values realized by the basic building blocks of contemporary economic activity, i.e., markets and firms. The third is making explicit the basic institutions that structure the background against which business operates. The aim is to develop a plausible framework for managerial decision making that respects the fact of value pluralism in a global economy and that fosters meaningful criticism of current business practices while remaining sufficiently grounded in contemporary circumstances so as to be relevant for managers. Link

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