Found 526 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

How aging, inequality and China make the U.S. government likely to get larger

How aging, inequality and China make the U.S. government likely to get larger. Lawrence Summers, September 12, 2017, Opinion, “Speaking at an event organized by Robert Greenstein, president of the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, I argued last week that unless our values have changed profoundly in an anti-government direction, the balance of pressures from economic change will lead to an expansion of the federal budget relative to gross domestic product. This was also the conclusion of a paper released by Paul Van de Water of the center. Excellent summaries were provided by Al Hunt and David Leonhardt.” Link

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Popular Acceptance of Inequality due to Innate Brute Luck and Support for Classical Benefit-Based Taxation

Popular Acceptance of Inequality due to Innate Brute Luck and Support for Classical Benefit-Based Taxation. Matthew Weinzierl, September 9, 2017, Paper, “U.S. survey respondents’ views on distributive justice differ in two specific, related ways from what is conventionally assumed in modern optimal tax research. When expressing their preferences over allocations in stylized, hypothetical scenarios meant to isolate key features of the tax problem, a large share of respondents resist the full equalization of unequal outcomes due to innate brute luck that standard analyses recommend. A similar share prefer a classical benefit-based logic for taxes over the conventional logic of diminishing marginal social welfare. Moreover, these two views are linked: respondents who more strongly resist equalization are more likely to prefer the classical benefit-based principle. Though the Amazon Mechanical Turk survey population is not a representative sample of the U.S. population, robustness of these results across demographic traits and political views suggests that a large share of the American public holds views inconsistent with standard welfarist objectives.Link

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Ethics and the Foundation of Global Justice

Ethics and the Foundation of Global Justice. Amartya Sen, September 8, 2017, Paper, “Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., wrote in his Letter from Birmingham Jail: “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” That was in April 1963, more than a half-century ago. He had been jailed for his agitation to end injustice against non-white people in his own country, and he would be killed soon after by an assassin who hated him and his vision.Link

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It’s Time to Balance the Power between Workers and Employers

It’s Time to Balance the Power between Workers and Employers. Lawrence Summers, September 3, 2017, Opinion, “The central issue in American politics is the economic security of the middle class and their sense of opportunity for their children. As long as a substantial majority of American adults believe that their children will not live as well as they did, our politics will remain bitter and divisive.Link

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Informal worker organising and mobilisation

 Informal worker organising and mobilisation, Martha Chen, 2017, Book Chapter, “The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South offers an edited collection on planning in parts of the world which, more often than not, are unrecognised or unmarked in mainstream planning texts. In doing so, its intention is not to fill a ‘gap’ that leaves this ‘mainstream’ unquestioned but to re-theorise planning from a deep understanding of ‘place’ as well as a commitment to recognise the diverse modes of practice that come within it.Link

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Blurring the Boundaries: The Interplay of Gender and Local Communities in the Commercialization of Social Ventures

Blurring the Boundaries: The Interplay of Gender and Local Communities in the Commercialization of Social Ventures. Lakshmi Ramarajan, Julie Battilana, August 23, 2017, Paper, “This paper examines the critical role of gender in the commercialization of social ventures. We argue that cultural beliefs about what is perceived to be appropriate work for each gender influence how founders of social ventures incorporate commercial activity into their ventures. Specifically, we argue and show that although cultural beliefs that disassociate women from commercial activity may result in female social venture founders being less likely to use commercial activity than their male counterparts, these effects are moderated by cultural beliefs about gender and commercial activity within founders’ local communities. The presence of female business owners in the same community mitigates the role of founders’ gender on the use of commercial activity.Link

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Virtual, Visible, and Actionable: Data assemblages and the sightlines of justice

Virtual, Visible, and Actionable: Data assemblages and the sightlines of justice. Sheila Jasanoff, August 16, 2017, Paper, “This paper explores the politics of representing events in the world in the form of data points, data sets, or data associations. Data collection involves an act of seeing and recording something that was previously hidden and possibly unnamed. The incidences included in a data set are not random or unrelated but stand for coherent, classifiable phenomena in the world. Moreover, for data to have an impact on law and policy, such information must be seen as actionable, that is, the aggregated data must show people both something they can perceive and something that demands interrogation, explanation, or resolution. Actionable data problematize the taken-for-granted order of society by pointing to questions or imbalances that can be corrected or rectified, or simply better understood, through systematic compilations of occurrences, frequencies, distributions, or correlations.Link

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Inequality in Knowledge Repository Use in Scaling Service Operations

Inequality in Knowledge Repository Use in Scaling Service Operations. Amy Edmondson, August 15, 2017, Paper, “To scale service operations requires sharing knowledge across the organization. However, prior work highlights that individuals on the periphery of organizational knowledge sharing networks may struggle to access useful knowledge at work. A knowledge repository (KR) has the potential to help peripheral individuals gain access to valuable knowledge because it is universally available and can be used without social interaction. However, for it to serve this equalizing function, those on the periphery of the organizational knowledge sharing networks must actually use it, possibly overcoming barriers to doing so. In this paper, we develop a multi-level model of knowledge use in teams to explore how individuals on the periphery of knowledge networks – due to inexperience, location, lack of social capital, gender, and role – access knowledge from a KR.Link

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Production and Welfare: Progress in Economic Measurement

Production and Welfare: Progress in Economic Measurement. Dale Jorgenson, 2017, Paper, “While the GDP was intended by its originators as a measure of production, the absence of a measure of welfare in the national accounts has led to widespread misuse of the GDP to proxy welfare. Measures of welfare are needed to appraise the outcomes of changes in economic policies and evaluate the results. Concepts that describe the income distribution, such as poverty and inequality, fall within the scope of welfare rather than production. This paper reviews recent advances in the measurement of production and welfare within the national accounts, primarily in the United States and the international organizations. Expanding the framework beyond the national accounts has led to important innovations in the measurement of both production and welfare.Link

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Business Responsibilities for Human Rights

Business Responsibilities for Human Rights: A Commentary on Arnold. Nien-he Hsieh, 2017, Paper, “Human rights have come to play a prominent role in debates about the responsibilities of business. In the business ethics literature, there are two approaches to the question of whether businesses have human rights obligations. The ‘moral’ approach conceives of human rights as antecedently existing basic moral rights. The ‘institutional’ approach starts with contemporary human rights practice in which human rights refer to rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and subsequent international documents, and in which states are the primary duty bearers of human rights. This commentary argues that the implications of adopting one or the other approach are much greater than most scholars recognize, and that we have reason to reject the moral approach and to adopt the institutional approach instead. The commentary highlights key questions that need to be addressed if human rights are to play a central role in framing the responsibilities of business.Link

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