Found 492 article(s) in category 'Inequality'

Australian Squatters, Convicts, and Capitalists: Dividing Up a Fast-Growing Frontier Pie 1821-1871

Australian Squatters, Convicts, and Capitalists: Dividing Up a Fast-Growing Frontier Pie 1821-1871. Jeffrey Williamson, April 2017, Paper, “Compared with its nineteenth century competitors, Australian GDP per worker grew exceptionally fast, about twice that of the US and three times that of Britain. This paper asks whether the fast growth performance produced rising inequality. Using a novel data set we offer new evidence supporting unambiguously the view that, in sharp contrast with US, Australia underwent a revolutionary leveling in incomes between the 1820s and the 1870s. This assessment is based on our annual estimates of functional shares in the form of land rents, convict incomes, free unskilled incomes, free skill premiums, British imperial transfers and a capitalist residual.Link

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The Earnings of Undocumented Immigrants

The Earnings of Undocumented Immigrants. George Borjas, March 2017, Paper, “Over 11 million undocumented persons reside in the United States, and there has been a heated debate over the impact of legislative or executive efforts to regularize the status of this population. This paper examines the determinants of earnings for undocumented workers. Using newly developed methods that impute undocumented status for foreign-born persons sampled in microdata surveys, the study documents a number of findings. First, the age-earnings profile of undocumented workers lies far below that of legal immigrants and of native workers, and is almost perfectly flat during the prime working years.Link

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Das Knowhow Kapital

Das Knowhow Kapital. Ricardo Hausmann, March 17, 2017, Opinion, “It has been a quarter-century since apartheid ended, and 23 since the African National Congress took power in South Africa. But, as President Jacob Zuma reported in his recent State of the Nation Address, the country’s whites remain in control.  “White households earn at least five times more than black households,” said Zuma, and “only 10% of the top 100 companies on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange are owned by black South Africans.” Whites still represent 72% of top management. The Gini coefficient, a widely-used measure of inequality, shows no sign of falling and remains one of the highest in the world.” Link

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Urban Productivity in the Developing World

Urban Productivity in the Developing World. Edward Glaeser, March 2017, Paper, “Africa is urbanizing rapidly, and this creates both opportunities and challenges. Labor productivity appears to be much higher in developing-world cities than in rural areas, and historically urbanization is strongly correlated with economic growth. Education seems to be a strong complement to urbanization, and entrepreneurial human capital correlates strongly with urban success. Immigrants provide a natural source of entrepreneurship, both in the U.S. and in Africa, which suggests that making African cities more livable can generate economic benefits by attracting talent. Reducing the negative externalities of urban life requires a combination of infrastructure, incentives, and institutions. Appropriate institutions can mean independent public authorities, public-private partnerships, and non-profit entities depending on the setting.Link

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How Much Europe Can Europe Tolerate?

How Much Europe Can Europe Tolerate? Dani Rodrik, March 14, 2017, Opinion, “This month the European Union will celebrate the 60th anniversary of its founding treaty, the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community. There certainly is much to celebrate. After centuries of war, upheaval, and mass killings, Europe is peaceful and democratic. The EU has brought 11 former Soviet-bloc countries into its fold, successfully guiding their post-communist transitions. And, in an age of inequality, EU member countries exhibit the lowest income gaps anywhere in the world.Link

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Getting India’s women into the workforce: Time for a smart approach

Getting India’s women into the workforce: Time for a smart approach. Rohini Pande, March 10, 2017, Opinion “Between 1990 and 2015, India’s real GDP (gross domestic product) per capita grew from US$375 to US$1572, but its female labour force participation rate (LFPR) fell from 37% to 28%. This gives us a puzzle to solve: why isn’t India following the same trajectory as most other countries at a similar level of growth, where female LFP rises with GDP?Link

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The Role of Competition in Effective Outsourcing: Subsidized Food Distribution in Indonesia

The Role of Competition in Effective Outsourcing: Subsidized Food Distribution in Indonesia. Rema Hanna, March 2017, Paper, “Should government service delivery be outsourced to the private sector? If so, how? We conduct the first randomized field experiment on these issues, spread across 572 Indonesian localities. We show that allowing for outsourcing the last mile of a subsidized food delivery program reduced operating costs without sacrificing quality. However, prices paid by citizens were lower only where we exogenously increased competition in the bidding process. Corrupt elites attempted to block reform, but high rents in these areas also increased entry, offsetting this effect. The results suggest that sufficient competition is needed to ensure citizens share the gains from outsourcing.Link

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Understanding the long-run effects of Africa’s slave trades

Understanding the long-run effects of Africa’s slave trades. Nathan Nunn, February 27, 2017, Paper, “Evidence suggests that Africa’s slave trades played an important part in the shaping of the continent not only in terms of economic outcomes, but cultural and social outcomes as well. This column, taken from a recently published VoxEU eBook, summarises studies that reveal the lasting toxic effects of Africa’s four waves of slave trades on contemporary development.Link

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The State of the World with Rawi Abdelal

The State of the World with Rawi Abdelal. Rawi Abdelal, February 24, 2017, Audio, “At this moment of great geopolitical change, Davis Center Director Rawi Abdelal looks at the fate of globalization through the lenses of great power transitions, national borders, and economic inequality. Rawi Abdelal is the Herbert F. Johnson Professor of International Management at Harvard Business School and the Director of Harvard’s Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies. His work focuses on international political economy and the politics of globalization and political economy of Eurasia.Link

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Land Institutions and Chinese Political Economy – Institutional Complementarities and Macroeconomic Management

Land Institutions and Chinese Political Economy – Institutional Complementarities and Macroeconomic Management. Meg Elizabeth Rithmire, February 22, 2017, Paper, “This article critically examines the origins and evolution of China’s unique land institutions and situates land policy in the larger context of China’s reforms and pursuit of economic growth. It argues that the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has strengthened the institutions that permit land expropriation—namely, urban/rural dualism, decentralized land ownership, and hierarchical land management—in order to use land as a key instrument of macroeconomic regulation, helping the CCP respond to domestic and international economic trends and manage expansion and contraction.Link

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