Found 187 article(s) in category 'Q1: Jobs?'

Unpacking Team Diversity: An Integrative Multi-Level Model of Cross-Boundary Teaming

Unpacking Team Diversity: An Integrative Multi-Level Model of Cross-Boundary Teaming. Amy Edmondson, August 26, 2016, Paper, “Teaming across expertise boundaries, within and across organizations, is an increasingly popular strategy for innovation. Although membership diversity expands the range of perspectives that teams can draw upon to innovate, meta-analyses of the team-diversity literature have found weak or inconsistent support for that assumption. These studies also have typically examined effects of team diversity in relatively stable bounded teams, rather than in newly formed temporary groups.Link

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Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, August 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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Does Productivity Still Determine Worker Compensation? Domestic and International Evidence

Does Productivity Still Determine Worker Compensation? Domestic and International Evidence. Robert Lawrence, 2016, Book Chapter. “The American dream is that each generation should live twice as well as the previous one, and this requires that incomes rise at an annual rate of around 2 percent per year. At this pace, incomes will double every 35 years. Between 1947 and 1970, average real compensation in the US increased at annual rate of 2.6 percent—a pace that was actually faster than required to achieve the dream. But since 1970, the average real compensation of US workers has grown at less than 1 percent per year, and at that pace it would take almost a lifetime to see incomes double.Link

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Low-Skill Immigration

Low-Skill Immigration. George Borjas, 2016, Book Chapter. “Do low-skill immigrants harm the employment opportunities of low-skill native workers? And do low-skill immigrants “pay their way” in the welfare state, or are they a fiscal burden to native taxpayers? These questions regarding the consequences of low-skill immigration lie at the core of the contentious immigration debate in the United States today.Link

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Would Reducing the US Corporate Tax Rate Increase Employment in the United States?

Would Reducing the US Corporate Tax Rate Increase Employment in the United States? Martin Feldstein, 2016, Book Chapter. “Reducing the corporate tax rate and changing the rules for taxing the foreign earnings of US corporations would have many favorable effects, including an increase of employment in the United States.  First, a brief description of the current corporate tax arrangements. The federal government now imposes a statutory tax rate on corporate profits of 35 percent, the highest tax rate among all the industrial countries of the world. In addition, the individual states levy corporate tax rates that average 9 percent. Since that state tax is a deductible expense in calculating income subject to the federal corporate tax, the combined tax rate is approximately 40 percent.Link

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Weathering the Great Recession: Variation in Employment Responses by Establishments and Countries

Weathering the Great Recession: Variation in Employment Responses by Establishments and Countries. Richard Freeman, July 2016, Paper, “This paper finds that US employment changed differently relative to output in the Great Recession and recovery than in most other advanced countries or in the US in earlier recessions. Instead of hoarding labor, US firms reduced employment proportionately more than output in the Great Recession, with establishments that survived the downturn contracting jobs massively. Diverging from the aggregate pattern, US manufacturers reduced employment less than output while the elasticity of employment to gross output varied widely among establishments. In the recovery, growth of employment was dominated by job creation in new establishments. The variegated responses of employment to output challenges extant models of how enterprises adjust employment over the business cycle.” Link

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Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, July 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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Do Political Connections Reduce Job Creation? Evidence from Lebanon

Do Political Connections Reduce Job Creation? Evidence from Lebanon. Ishac Diwan, July 1, 2016, Paper. “Using firm-level census data, we determine how politically-connected firms (PCFs) reduce job creation in Lebanon. After observing that large firms account for the bulk of net job creation, we find that PCFs are larger and create more jobs, but are also less productive, than non-PCFs in their sectors. On a net basis, at the sector-level, each additional PCF reduces jobs created by 7.2% and jobs created by non-PCFs by 11.3%. These findings support the notion that politically-connected firms are used for clientelistic purposes in Lebanon, exchanging privileges for jobs that benefit their patrons? supporters.Link

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Home-Based Workers and Cities

Home-Based Workers and Cities. Martha Chen, 2016, Paper. “This paper explores the impact of local government policies and urban plans on home-based workers. It presents recent national data on the size and composition of home-based work in developing countries as well as findings from two recent field studies of urban home-based workers in several Asian cities/countries. The research findings highlight that homes often double as workplaces, especially for women workers, and that slums are domains of significant economic activities. Reflecting these twin facts, as well as the demands of home-based workers, the paper makes the case that city governments and urban planners need to integrate home-based workers and their livelihood activities into local economic development plans. It also argues that city governments need to extend basic infrastructure to the homes-cum-workplaces of home-based workers, as well as transport services to the settlements where they live and work. The paper provides some promising examples of where and how this has been done, largely in response to effective advocacy by organizations of home-based workers.Link

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Technology, informal workers and cities: insights from Ahmedabad (India), Durban (South Africa) and Lima (Peru)

Technology, informal workers and cities: insights from Ahmedabad (India), Durban (South Africa) and Lima (Peru). Martha Chen, 2016, Paper. “Technology is a key driver of change, not least in the world of work. Yet little is known about what technologies are used by – or impact on – the working poor in the informal economy, and in what ways. This paper presents findings from a 2015 study by the WIEGO network and local partners in three cities: Ahmedabad, India; Durban, South Africa; and Lima, Peru. The findings reveal that informal workers in the study cities are using diverse tools, from manual devices to electrical equipment and internet platforms, to strengthen their livelihoods. Overall, the tools used tend to be basic. Often they are being adapted in ingenious ways in order to adapt to resource and other constraints. Take-up of improved tools is limited by low incomes and concerns about theft and confiscation. It is also affected by city-level, context-specific systems of energy, transport and waste. This paper summarizes which types of technologies are most useful to different sectors of informal workers. It argues that the policy and regulatory environment, and city-wide technological systems, should be more responsive to the technological and other needs of the urban informal workforce.Link

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