Found 182 article(s) in category 'Q1: Jobs?'

An Account of One’s Own: Can Targeting Benefits Payments Address Social Constraints to Female Labor Force Participation?

An Account of One’s Own: Can Targeting Benefits Payments Address Social Constraints to Female Labor Force Participation? Rohini Pande, October 2016, Paper, “Although emerging economies have enjoyed robust growth in recent years, in many cases female labor force participation has remained low, or even fallen. India, where women often face highly restrictive gender norms regarding work and mobility, is a particularly stark negative outlier. In collaboration with the state government of Madhya Pradesh, we experimentally varied whether women’s wages from India’s public workfare program were deposited into female-owned bank accounts versus an account owned by the male household head.Link

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E-governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India

E-governance, Accountability, and Leakage in Public Programs: Experimental Evidence from a Financial Management Reform in India. Rohini Pande, October 16, 2016, Paper, “In collaboration with the Government of Bihar, India, we conducted a large-scale experiment to evaluate whether transparency in fiscal transfer systems can increase accountability and reduce corruption in the implementation of a workfare program. The reforms introduced electronic fund-flow, cut out administrative tiers, and switched the basis of transfer amounts from forecasts to documented expenditures. Treatment reduced leakages along three measures: expenditures and hours claimed dropped while an independent household survey found no impact on actual employment and wages received; a matching exercise reveals a reduction in fake households on payrolls; and local program officials’ self-reported median personal assets fell.Link

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Measuring Ex-Ante Welfare in Insurance Markets

Measuring Ex-Ante Welfare in Insurance Markets. Nathaniel Hendren, October 2016, Paper, “Insurance has value by insuring against the realization of risk. Adverse selection occurs when a portion of this risk is already known at the time of contracting. This suggests demand estimates in adversely selected markets tend to understate the ex-ante (or ex-post utilitarian) willingness to pay for insurance. This paper provides new reduced-form methods to infer the ex-ante value of insurance from observed demand and cost curve estimates in markets with adverse selection. The slope of the demand and cost curves measure the quantity of information revealed; by combining with internal or external measures of risk aversion, one obtains exante measures of willingness to pay. Applying the model to existing estimates in health and unemployment insurance contexts,” Paper – Link, Slides – Link

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How Scary is Disruptive Technology?

How Scary is Disruptive Technology? Martin Feldstein, September 28, 2016, Opinion, “The steady stream of improvements in driverless cars has convinced me that before too long the roads will be filled with cars and trucks operating without humans at the wheel. Likewise, I am convinced that the revolution in artificial intelligence will allow computers and robots to do many of the tasks that white-collar workers now do.Link

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Men not at work: Lawrence Summers on America’s hidden unemployment

Men not at work: Lawrence Summers on America’s hidden unemployment. Lawrence Summers, September 23, 2016, Opinion, “The impact of technology on the availability of work is much debated these days. It is widely feared that half the jobs in the economy might be eliminated by innovations such as self-driving vehicles, automatic checkout machines and expert systems that trade securities more effectively than humans can.Link

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The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks

The Labor Market Consequences of Refugee Supply Shocks. George Borjas, September 2016, Paper, “The continuing inflow of hundreds of thousands of refugees into many European countries has ignited much political controversy and raised questions that require a fuller understanding of the determinants and consequences of refugee supply shocks. This paper revisits four historical refugee shocks to document their labor market impact. Specifically, we examine: The influx of Marielitos into Miami in 1980; the influx of French repatriates and Algerian nationals into France at the end of the Algerian Independence War in 1962; the influx of Jewish émigrés into Israel after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s; and the exodus of refugees from the former Yugoslavia during the long series of Balkan wars between 1991 and 2001.Link

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Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, August 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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Does Productivity Still Determine Worker Compensation? Domestic and International Evidence

Does Productivity Still Determine Worker Compensation? Domestic and International Evidence. Robert Lawrence, 2016, Book Chapter. “The American dream is that each generation should live twice as well as the previous one, and this requires that incomes rise at an annual rate of around 2 percent per year. At this pace, incomes will double every 35 years. Between 1947 and 1970, average real compensation in the US increased at annual rate of 2.6 percent—a pace that was actually faster than required to achieve the dream. But since 1970, the average real compensation of US workers has grown at less than 1 percent per year, and at that pace it would take almost a lifetime to see incomes double.Link

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Low-Skill Immigration

Low-Skill Immigration. George Borjas, 2016, Book Chapter. “Do low-skill immigrants harm the employment opportunities of low-skill native workers? And do low-skill immigrants “pay their way” in the welfare state, or are they a fiscal burden to native taxpayers? These questions regarding the consequences of low-skill immigration lie at the core of the contentious immigration debate in the United States today.Link

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Would Reducing the US Corporate Tax Rate Increase Employment in the United States?

Would Reducing the US Corporate Tax Rate Increase Employment in the United States? Martin Feldstein, 2016, Book Chapter. “Reducing the corporate tax rate and changing the rules for taxing the foreign earnings of US corporations would have many favorable effects, including an increase of employment in the United States.  First, a brief description of the current corporate tax arrangements. The federal government now imposes a statutory tax rate on corporate profits of 35 percent, the highest tax rate among all the industrial countries of the world. In addition, the individual states levy corporate tax rates that average 9 percent. Since that state tax is a deductible expense in calculating income subject to the federal corporate tax, the combined tax rate is approximately 40 percent.Link

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