Found 182 article(s) in category 'Q1: Jobs?'

Beliefs about Gender

Beliefs about Gender. Andrei Shleifer, December 2016, Paper, “We conduct a laboratory experiment on the determinants of beliefs about own and others’ ability across different domains. A preliminary look at the data points to two distinct forces: miscalibration in estimating performance depending on the difficulty of tasks and gender stereotypes. We develop a theoretical model that separates these forces and apply it to analyze a large laboratory dataset in which participants estimate their own and a partner’s performance on questions across six subjects: arts and literature, emotion recognition, business, verbal reasoning, mathematics, and sports.Link

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Globalization and Wage Inequality

Globalization and Wage Inequality. Elhanan Helpman, December 9, 2016, Paper, “Globalization has been blamed for rising inequality in rich and poor countries. Yet the views of many protagonists in this debate are not based on evidence. To help form an evidence-based opinion, I review in this paper the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between globalization and wage inequality. While the initial analysis that started in the early 1990s focused on a particular mechanism that links trade to wages, subsequent studies have considered several other channels, and the quantitative assessment of the size of these influences has been carried out in multiple studies. Building on this research, I conclude that trade played an appreciable role in increasing wage inequality, but that its cumulative effect has been modest, and that globalization does not explain the preponderance of the rise in wage inequality within countries.Link

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Hiring Big from Small Towns—Evidence from a Natural Experiment in India

Hiring Big from Small Towns—Evidence from a Natural Experiment in India. Prithwiraj Choudhury, Tarun Khanna, 2016, Paper, “An insufficient supply of skilled human capital constrains the growth of technology firms in India. Despite this, most firms’ hiring efforts are geographically concentrated around the large cities, and individuals living in smaller towns are mostly excluded from the hiring efforts. We argue that despite the ex ante higher search costs of hiring from smaller towns, firms can benefit from hiring individuals from smallertowns. We study the relation between an employee’s prior location (hometown) and subsequent productivity within the firm and exploit a natural experiment within an Indian technology firm where the preexistence of a computer-generated talent allocation protocol allows us to control for endogeneity concerns related to assortative matching of employees to production centers.Link

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Share Capitalism and Worker Wellbeing

Share Capitalism and Worker Wellbeing. Richard Freeman, 2016, Paper, “We show that worker wellbeing is not only related to the amount of compensation workers receive but also how they receive it. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been pre-occupied with individual performance-related pay, we here demonstrate a robust positive link between the receipt of a range of group performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) and job satisfaction. Critically, this relationship remains after conditioning on wage levels, which suggests these pay methods provide utility to workers in addition to that through higher wages. These findings survive a variety of methods aimed at accounting for unobserved
individual and job-specific characteristics.Link 

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Shared Capitalism: What is it and What Does it Do?

Shared Capitalism: What is it and What Does it Do? Richard Freeman, December 2016, Paper, “We all know that people respond to incentives. Economics 101 teaches that workers put forth greater effort when these efforts are rewarded financially, and top talent tends to gravitate toward jobs and firms where rewards are geared to performance. For the most part, however, the research that’s led us to these conclusions has focused on performance incentives for individual workers, such as piece rates, merit pay, individual commissions, or bonuses.Link

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Two Cheers for the Foreign Tax Credit, Even in the BEPS Era

Two Cheers for the Foreign Tax Credit, Even in the BEPS Era. Stephen Shay, November November 2016, Paper, “Reform of the U.S. international income taxation system has been a hotly debated topic for many years. The principal competing alternatives are a territorial or exemption system and a worldwide system. For reasons summarized in this Article, we favor worldwide taxation if it is real worldwide taxation; that is, a non-deferred U.S. tax is imposed on all foreign income of U.S. residents at the time the income is earned. However, this approach is not acceptable unless the resulting double taxation is alleviated. The longstanding U.S. approach for handling the international double taxation problem is a foreign tax credit limited to the U.S. levy on the taxpayer’s foreign income.Link

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On Her Account: Can Strengthening Women’s Financial Control Boost Female Labor Supply?

On Her Account: Can Strengthening Women’s Financial Control Boost Female Labor Supply? Rohini Pande, November 15, 2016, Paper, “In collaboration with the state government of Madhya Pradesh, we experimentally varied whether women’s wages from India’s public workfare program were deposited into female-owned bank accounts instead of into the male household head’s account (the status quo). This treatment increased women’s work, both in the program and in the private sector, despite no change in market wages. Treatment effects are concentrated among two groups of women: those who had not previously worked for the program and those whose husbands disapprove of women working. These results are at odds with a model of household behavior in which labor force participation decisions only depend on wages and own-preference for leisure. Instead, we argue that they are consistent with a model in which gender norms internalized by men limit women’s labor market engagement.Link

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Global Talent Flows

Global Talent Flows. William Kerr, November 6, 2016, Paper, “The global distribution of talent is highly skewed and the resources available to countries to develop and utilize their best and brightest vary substantially. The migration of skilled workers across countries tilts the deck even further. Using newly available data, we first review the landscape of global talent mobility, which is both asymmetric and rising in importance. We next consider the determinants of global talent flows at the individual and firm levels and sketch some important implications. Third, we review the national gatekeepers for skilled migration and broad differences in approaches used to select migrants for admission. Looking forward, the capacity of people, firms, and countries to successfully navigate this tangled web of global talent will be critical to their success.Link

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Digital Labor Markets and Global Talent Flows

Digital Labor Markets and Global Talent Flows. William Kerr, Christopher Stanton, October 2016, Paper, “We review the rapid development of digital labor markets that connect companies and contractors on a global basis. We describe the environment in which these markets have taken root, the micro- and macro-level studies of their operations, their ongoing evolution and recent trends, and also perspectives for undertaking research with micro-data from these labor platforms. Digital labor markets are an exciting frontier for global talent flows and growing rapidly in importance.Link

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