Found 187 article(s) in category 'Q1: Jobs?'

High-Skill Migration and Agglomeration

High-Skill Migration and Agglomeration. William Kerr, 2017, Paper, “This review considers recent research regarding high-skilled migration. We adopt a data-driven perspective, bringing together and describing several ongoing research streams that range from the construction of global migration databases, to the legal codification of national policies regarding high-skilled migration, to the analysis of patent data regarding cross-border inventor movements. A common theme throughout this research is the importance of agglomeration economies for explaining high-skilled migration. We highlight some key recent findings and outline major gaps that we hope will be tackled soon.Link

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Welcome Home in a Crisis: Effects of Return Migration on the Non-migrants’ Wages and Employment

Welcome Home in a Crisis: Effects of Return Migration on the Non-migrants’ Wages and Employment. Ricardo Hausmann, 2017, Paper, “Albanian migrants in Greece were particularly affected by the Greek crisis, which spurred a wave of return migration that increased Albania’s labor force by 5% between 2011 and 2014 alone. We study how this return migration affected the employment chances and earnings of Albanians who never migrated. We find positive effects on the wages of low-skilled non-migrants and overall positive effects on employment. The gains partially offset the sharp drop in remittances in the observed period. The employment gains are concentrated in the agricultural sector, where most return migrants engage in self-employment and entrepreneurship. Businesses run by return migrants seem to pull Albanians from non-participation, self-employment and subsistence agriculture into commercial agriculture.Link

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Entrepreneurship and growth: lessons from an intellectual journey

Entrepreneurship and growth: lessons from an intellectual journey. Philippe Aghion, January 2017, Paper, “This lecture is the story of an intellectual journey, that of elaborating a new—Schumpeterian—theory of economic growth. A theory where (i) growth is generated by innovative entrepreneurs; (ii) entrepreneurial investments respond to incentives that are themselves shaped by economic policies and institutions; (iii) new innovations replace old technologies: in other words, growth involves creative destruction and therefore involves a permanent conflict between incumbents and new entrants. First, we motivate and then lay out the Schumpeterian paradigm and point to a set of empirical predictions which distinguish this paradigm from other growth models. Second, we raise four debates on which the Schumpeterian approach sheds new light: the middle income trap, secular stagnation, the recent rise in top income inequality, and firm dynamics. Third and last, we show how the paradigm can be used to think (or rethink) about growth policy design.Link

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‘Acting Wife’: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments

‘Acting Wife’: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments. Amanda Pallais, December 2016, Paper, “Do single women avoid career-enhancing actions because these actions could signal personality traits (like ambition) that are undesirable in the marriage market? We answer this question through two field experiments in an elite U.S. MBA program. Newly-admitted MBA students filled out a questionnaire on job preferences and personality traits to be used by the career center in internship placement; randomly selected students thought their answers would be shared with classmates. When they believed their classmates would not see their responses, single and non-single women answered similarly. However, single women reported desired salaries $18,000 lower and being willing to travel seven fewer days per month and work four fewer hours per week when they expected classmates would see their answers.Link

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Is There a Goldilocks Solution? “Just Right” Promotion of Labor Mobility

Is There a Goldilocks Solution? “Just Right” Promotion of Labor Mobility. Lant Pritchett, December 2016, Paper, “Relaxations of rich country restrictions on the mobility of low-skilled labor is far and away the single most potent policy change to raise incomes of people now living in poor countries. But this just isn’t on the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals agenda or the agenda of any development actor. The reason why is seemingly obvious: rich country voters don’t want it. In this policy essay we take issue with that explanation in two ways. First, a naïve explanation of the global agenda as determined by the “polled opinion of the median voters” (of whatever countries) is an empirically poor model.Link

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Beliefs about Gender

Beliefs about Gender. Andrei Shleifer, December 2016, Paper, “We conduct a laboratory experiment on the determinants of beliefs about own and others’ ability across different domains. A preliminary look at the data points to two distinct forces: miscalibration in estimating performance depending on the difficulty of tasks and gender stereotypes. We develop a theoretical model that separates these forces and apply it to analyze a large laboratory dataset in which participants estimate their own and a partner’s performance on questions across six subjects: arts and literature, emotion recognition, business, verbal reasoning, mathematics, and sports.Link

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Globalization and Wage Inequality

Globalization and Wage Inequality. Elhanan Helpman, December 9, 2016, Paper, “Globalization has been blamed for rising inequality in rich and poor countries. Yet the views of many protagonists in this debate are not based on evidence. To help form an evidence-based opinion, I review in this paper the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between globalization and wage inequality. While the initial analysis that started in the early 1990s focused on a particular mechanism that links trade to wages, subsequent studies have considered several other channels, and the quantitative assessment of the size of these influences has been carried out in multiple studies. Building on this research, I conclude that trade played an appreciable role in increasing wage inequality, but that its cumulative effect has been modest, and that globalization does not explain the preponderance of the rise in wage inequality within countries.Link

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Share Capitalism and Worker Wellbeing

Share Capitalism and Worker Wellbeing. Richard Freeman, 2016, Paper, “We show that worker wellbeing is not only related to the amount of compensation workers receive but also how they receive it. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been pre-occupied with individual performance-related pay, we here demonstrate a robust positive link between the receipt of a range of group performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) and job satisfaction. Critically, this relationship remains after conditioning on wage levels, which suggests these pay methods provide utility to workers in addition to that through higher wages. These findings survive a variety of methods aimed at accounting for unobserved
individual and job-specific characteristics.Link 

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Shared Capitalism: What is it and What Does it Do?

Shared Capitalism: What is it and What Does it Do? Richard Freeman, December 2016, Paper, “We all know that people respond to incentives. Economics 101 teaches that workers put forth greater effort when these efforts are rewarded financially, and top talent tends to gravitate toward jobs and firms where rewards are geared to performance. For the most part, however, the research that’s led us to these conclusions has focused on performance incentives for individual workers, such as piece rates, merit pay, individual commissions, or bonuses.Link

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