Found 180 article(s) in category 'Q1: Jobs?'

Das Knowhow Kapital

Das Knowhow Kapital. Ricardo Hausmann, March 17, 2017, Opinion, “It has been a quarter-century since apartheid ended, and 23 since the African National Congress took power in South Africa. But, as President Jacob Zuma reported in his recent State of the Nation Address, the country’s whites remain in control.  “White households earn at least five times more than black households,” said Zuma, and “only 10% of the top 100 companies on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange are owned by black South Africans.” Whites still represent 72% of top management. The Gini coefficient, a widely-used measure of inequality, shows no sign of falling and remains one of the highest in the world.” Link

Tags: , , , , ,

Urban Productivity in the Developing World

Urban Productivity in the Developing World. Edward Glaeser, March 2017, Paper, “Africa is urbanizing rapidly, and this creates both opportunities and challenges. Labor productivity appears to be much higher in developing-world cities than in rural areas, and historically urbanization is strongly correlated with economic growth. Education seems to be a strong complement to urbanization, and entrepreneurial human capital correlates strongly with urban success. Immigrants provide a natural source of entrepreneurship, both in the U.S. and in Africa, which suggests that making African cities more livable can generate economic benefits by attracting talent. Reducing the negative externalities of urban life requires a combination of infrastructure, incentives, and institutions. Appropriate institutions can mean independent public authorities, public-private partnerships, and non-profit entities depending on the setting.Link

Tags: , , , , ,

Getting India’s women into the workforce: Time for a smart approach

Getting India’s women into the workforce: Time for a smart approach. Rohini Pande, March 10, 2017, Opinion “Between 1990 and 2015, India’s real GDP (gross domestic product) per capita grew from US$375 to US$1572, but its female labour force participation rate (LFPR) fell from 37% to 28%. This gives us a puzzle to solve: why isn’t India following the same trajectory as most other countries at a similar level of growth, where female LFP rises with GDP?Link

Tags: , , , , , ,

Why We Don’t Value Flextime Enough

Why We Don’t Value Flextime Enough. Michael Luca, March 3, 2017, Opinion, “Earlier this month, the city council in Copenhagen voted unanimously to give all municipal workers greater control over their schedules. The city’s 10,000 employees will work the same number of hours as before but with greater freedom to decide when that…Link

Tags: , , ,

New and Enduring Dual Structures of Employment in Japan: The Rise of Non-Regular Labor, 1980s–2010s

New and Enduring Dual Structures of Employment in Japan: The Rise of Non-Regular Labor, 1980s–2010s. Andrew Gordon, February 10, 2017, Paper, “A steady rise in what is called ‘non-regular employment’ is the most notable change in Japanese working life since at least the 1980s. Such workers accounted for nearly 40% of all employees by 2015. This paper focuses on the results of the turn to non-regular employment and identifies its distinctive aspects in the context of a long history of various forms of precarious employment. A historical perspective shows that newer forms of second-tier status, including some that can be termed ‘non-regular regular’ employment, have come to overlay continuing older ones.” Link

Tags: , , , ,

Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity

Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity. Tom Nicholas, February 2017, Paper, “This paper builds on the analysis in Akcigit, Grigsby, and Nicholas (2017) by using US patent and Census data to examine macro and micro-level aspects of the relationship between immigration and innovation. We construct a measure of “foreign born expertise” and show that technology areas where immigrant inventors were prevalent between 1880 and 1940 experienced more patenting and citations between 1940 and 2000. We also show that immigrant inventors were more productive during their life cycle than native born inventors, although they received significantly lower levels of labor income than their native born counterparts. Overall, the contribution of foreign born inventors to US innovation was substantial, but we also find evidence of an immigrant inventor wage-gap that cannot be explained by differentials in productivity.Link

Tags: , , , ,

Racial Inequality in Employment and Earnings after Incarceration

Racial Inequality in Employment and Earnings after Incarceration. Bruce Western, February 2017, Paper, “This paper analyzes monthly employment and earnings in the year after incarceration with survey data from a sample of individuals just released from prison. More than in earlier research, the data provide detailed measurement of temporary and informal employment and richly describe the labor market disadvantages of formerly-incarcerated men and women. We find that half the sample is jobless in any given month and average earnings are well below the poverty level. Jointly modeling employment and earnings, blacks and Hispanics are estimated to have lower total earnings than whites even after accounting for health, human capital, and criminal involvement.Link

Tags: , , , , ,

Is Global Equality the Enemy of National Equality?

Is Global Equality the Enemy of National Equality? Dani Rodrik, January 2017, Paper, “The bulk of global inequality is accounted for by income differences across countries rather than within countries. Expanding trade with China has aggravated inequality in some advanced economies, while ameliorating global inequality. But the “China shock” is receding and other low-income countries are unlikely to replicate China’s export-oriented industrialization experience. Relaxing restrictions on cross-border labor mobility might have an even stronger positive effect on global inequality. However it also raises a similar tension. While there would likely be adverse effects on low-skill workers in the advanced economies, international labor mobility has some advantages compared to further liberalizing international trade in goods. I argue that none of the contending perspectives — national-egalitarian, cosmopolitan, utilitarian — provides on its own an adequate frame for evaluating the consequences.Link

Tags: , , , ,

Concentrating on the Fall of the Labor Share

Concentrating on the Fall of the Labor Share. Lawrence Katz, January 2017, Paper, “The recent fall of labor’s share of GDP in numerous countries is well-documented, but its causes are poorly understood. We sketch a “superstar firm” model where industries are increasingly characterized by “winner take most” competition, leading a small number of highly profitable (and low labor share) firms to command growing market share. Building on Autor et al. (2017), we evaluate and confirm two core claims of the superstar firm hypothesis: the concentration of sales among firms within industries has risen across much of the private sector; and industries with larger increases in concentration exhibit a larger decline in labor’s share.Link

Tags: , , , ,

Can Paying Firms More Quickly Affect Aggregate Employment

Can Paying Firms More Quickly Affect Aggregate Employment. Ramana Nanda, January 2017, Paper, “We study the impact of Quickpay, a federal reform that indefinitely accelerated payments to small business contractors of the U.S. government. Despite treated firms being paid just 15 days sooner, we find a strong direct effect of the reform on county-sector employment growth. Importantly, however, we also document substantial crowding out of non-treated firms’ employment within local labor markets. While the overall net employment effect was positive, it was close to zero in tight labor markets – where direct effects were weaker and crowding out stronger. Our results highlight an important channel for alleviating financing constraints in small firms, but also emphasize the general-equilibrium effects of large-scale interventions, which can lead to lower aggregate outcomes depending on labor market conditions.Link

Tags: , , , ,