Found 182 article(s) in category 'Q1: Jobs?'

Do Powerful Politicians Cause Corporate Downsizing

Do Powerful Politicians Cause Corporate Downsizing. Lauren Cohen, Joshua Coval, Christopher J. Malloy, October 7, 2011, Paper. “This paper employs a new empirical approach for identifying the impact of government spending on the private sector. Our key innovation is to use changes in congressional committee chairmanship as a source of exogenous variation in state-level federal expenditures. In doing so, we show that fiscal spending shocks appear to significantly dampen corporate sector investment and employment activity…” Link

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Unleash the Entrepreneurs: Bad Policies are Holding Back the Ultimate Job Creators

Unleash the Entrepreneurs: Bad Policies are Holding Back the Ultimate Job Creators. Edward Glaeser, September 2011, Paper. “Three years have passed since the financial crisis of 2008, and unemployment rates remain painfully high. As of August 2011, America employed 6.6 million fewer workers than it did four years earlier. To try to fix the problem, the Obama administration has pursued a variety of Keynesian measures — above all, the huge stimulus package of 2009, which included not only direct government spending but also such features as tax credits for home buyers and temporary tax cuts for most Americans…” Link

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Do Broad-based Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing and Stock Options Help the Best Firms Do Even Better?

Do Broad-based Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing and Stock Options Help the Best Firms Do Even Better? Richard Freeman, 2011, Paper, “This article analyses the linkages among group incentive methods of compensation (broad-based employee ownership, profit sharing and stock options), labour practices, worker assessments of workplace culture, turnover and firm performance in firms that applied to the ‘100 Best Companies to Work For in America’ competition from 2005 to 2007. Although employers with good labour practices self-select into the 100 Best Companies firms sample…Link

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Fertility and the Plough

Fertility and the Plough. Nathan Nunn, 2011, Paper. “Recent studies provide evidence that a significant portion of the cross-country variation in female labor participation and fertility can be explained by cultural norms. In a recent paper, we examine the historical origins of these cultural differences (see Alesina, Giuliano, and Nunn 2010). We test the long-standing hypothesis, first developed by Ester Boserup (1970), that different attitudes about gender roles evolved because of differences in the form of agriculture traditionally practiced. In societies with shifting cultivation, agriculture is labor intensive, cultivation uses a hoe or a digging stick, and women actively participate…” Link

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Grand Challenges in the Study of Employment and Technological Change

Grand Challenges in the Study of Employment and Technological Change. Lawrence Katz, September 29, 2010, Paper. “Leading economists from Paul Samuelson to Paul Krugman have labored to allay the fear that technological advances may reduce overall employment, causing mass unemployment as workers are displaced by machines. This ‘lump of labor fallacy’ – positing that there is a fixed amount of work to be done so that increased labor productivity reduces employment – is intuitively appealing and demonstrably false. Technological improvements create new products and services…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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“Schooling Can’t Buy Me Love”: Marriage, Work, and the Gender Education Gap in Latin America

“Schooling Can’t Buy Me Love”: Marriage, Work, and the Gender Education Gap in Latin America. Ricardo Hausmann, July 2010, Paper. “In this paper we establish six stylized facts related to marriage and work in Latin America and present a simple model to account for them. First, skilled women are less likely to be married than unskilled women. Second, skilled women are less likely to be married than skilled men. Third, married skilled men are more likely to work than unmarried skilled men, but married skilled women are less likely to work than unmarried skilled women. Fourth, Latin American women…” Link

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The Secret to Job Growth: Think Small

The Secret to Job Growth: Think Small. Edward Glaeser, William Kerr, July 2010, Paper. “With job growth continuing to lag even as the economy picks up, local communities will be tempted to resume “smokestack chasing” – using tax breaks to attract big employers. That’s a misguided approach. Research shows that regional economic growth is highly correlated with the presence of many small, entrepreneurial employers – not a few big ones. In fact, a study of U.S. metro regions showed that cities whose number of “firms per worker” was 10% higher than the average in 1977 experienced 9%…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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Location Strategies for Agglomeration Economies

Location Strategies for Agglomeration Economies. Juan Alcacer, September 2009, Paper. “Geographically concentrated industry activity creates pools of skilled labor, specialized suppliers, and increases opportunities for knowledge spillover. These agglomeration economies offer potential advantage for  firms, but research exploring their strategic implications is incomplete.  Therefore, we develop a three-layer framework of why firms agglomerate for each agglomeration economy. The first layer assesses the relative importance of skilled labor, suppliers, and knowledge spillovers…” Link

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The Complementarity Between Cities and Skills

The Complementarity Between Cities and Skills, Edward Glaeser, June 2009, Paper. “There is a strong connection between per-worker productivity and metropolitan area population, which is commonly interpreted as evidence for the existence of agglomeration economies. This correlation is particularly strong in cities with higher levels of skill and virtually nonexistent in less skilled metropolitan areas. This fact is particularly compatible with the view that urban density is important because proximity spreads knowledge, which either makes workers more skilled or entrepreneurs more productive…” Link

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Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets

Employment Discrimination and the Changing Landscape of Low-Wage Labor Markets. Bruce Western, 2009, Paper. “A large body of theoretical and empirical research would lead us to predict a steady decline in discrimination, but several features of contemporary low-wage labor markets may function to sustain or renew racialized decision-making. Shifts in the composition of both low-wage jobs and workers have potentially created new incentives and opportunities for employers to enact racial preferences in the selection of workers.Link

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