Found 457 article(s) in category 'Fiscal Policy'

Impact Evaluation Methods in Public Economics: A Brief Introduction to Randomized Evaluations and Comparison with Other Methods

Impact Evaluation Methods in Public Economics: A Brief Introduction to Randomized Evaluations and Comparison with Other Methods. Dina Pomeranz, October 2015, Paper, “Recent years have seen a large expansion in the use of rigorous impact evaluation techniques. Increasingly, public administrations are collaborating with academic economists and other quantitative social scientists to apply such rigorous methods to the study of public finance. These developments allow for more reliable measurements of the effects of different policy options on the behavioral responses of citizens, firm owners, or public officials. They can help decision makers in tax administrations, public procurement offices, and other public agencies design programs informed by well-founded evidence. This paper provides an introductory overview of the most frequently used impact evaluation methods.Link

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Economists’ declaration on universal health coverage

Economists’ declaration on universal health coverage. Lawrence Summers, September 17, 2015, Opinion, “With the UN set to launch the bold sustainable development agenda this autumn, this is a crucial moment for global leaders to reflect on the financial investments to maximise progress by 2030. As an input into deliberations around those investments, the signatories to this declaration, economists from 44 countries, call on global policy makers to prioritise a pro-poor pathway to universal health coverage (UHC) as an essential pillar of development.Link

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Why Ukraine’s debt deal is important not just for Ukraine, but also for the West

Why Ukraine’s debt deal is important not just for Ukraine, but also for the West. Lawrence Summers, September 14, 2015, Opinion. “I have spent the last two days in Kiev attending the Yalta European Strategy meeting, where I have had the chance to discuss Ukraine’s economic reform efforts with key officials, including the finance minister and prime minister. I was encouraged to see a country where, despite huge challenges, including Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine, economic reforms are being carried out and receiving support from the international community. The Ukrainian parliament will this week vote on a historic debt reduction…” Link

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The Ups and Downs of Minimum Wage Policy: The Fair Labor Standards Act in Historical Perspective

The Ups and Downs of Minimum Wage Policy: The Fair Labor Standards Act in Historical Perspective. Michael Reich, September 11, 2015, Paper. “I provide here a historical overview of the impact of minimum wage legislation enacted over 75 years ago in the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938 and as amended subsequently on numerous occasions. Given elected officials’ caution today about raising the minimum wage in bad economic times, the timing of the passage of the FLSA is remarkable. After a long and heated political debate, Congress passed the FLSA in 1938, establishing a nationwide minimum wage of $0.25 per hour…Link

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The Key Role of Conservatives in Taxing Carbon

The Key Role of Conservatives in Taxing Carbon. N. Gregory Mankiw, September 4, 2015, Opinion, “This summer, a friend sent me a remarkable headline from The Seattle Times: ‘‘Green’ Alliance Opposes Petition to Tax carbon.’  My initial thought was that this doesn’t make sense. It is like reading ‘Democrats Rally to Cut the Minimum Wage’ or ‘Republicans Unite to Hike Income Taxes.’ But the political debate in Washington State is a case study about why smart environmental policy is so hard to enact…” Link

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China Confronts the Market

China Confronts the Market. Jeffrey Frankel, September 4, 2015, Opinion, “China’s current economic woes have largely been viewed through a single lens: the government’s failure to let the market operate. But that perspective has led foreign observers to misinterpret some of this year’s most important developments in the foreign-exchange and stock markets. To be sure, Chinese authorities do intervene strongly in various ways. From 2004 to 2013, the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) bought trillions of dollars in foreign-exchange reserves, thereby preventing the renminbi from appreciating as much as it would have had it floated freely…Link

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The Business-Government Relationship in the United States

The Business-Government Relationship in the United States. Roger Porter, Fall 2015, Syllabus. “This course is designed to help students think analytically about the ways in which government and business interact with one another in a mixed economy. It examines how business and government are organized and how they seek to influence one another. It considers how government policies affect the competitive positions of individual firms and industries and how firms and industries compete to influence such policies.Link

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Social Mobility and Health in European Countries: Does Welfare Regime Type Matter?

Social Mobility and Health in European Countries: Does Welfare Regime Type Matter? Ichiro Kawachi, August 22, 2015. Paper, “Health inequalities pose an important public health challenge in European countries, for which increased social mobility has been suggested as a cause.We sought to describe how the relationship between health inequalities and social mobility varies among welfare regime types in the European region. Data from six rounds of the European Social Survey was analyzed using multilevel statistical techniques, stratified by welfare regime type, including 237,535 individuals from 136 countries…Link

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Knowledge of Future Job Loss and Implications for Unemployment Insurance

Knowledge of Future Job Loss and Implications for Unemployment Insurance. Nathaniel Hendren, August 2015, Paper, “This paper studies the positive and normative implications of individuals’ knowledge about their potential future job loss. Using information contained in subjective probability elicitations, I show individuals have significant information about their chances of losing their job conditional on a wide range of observable information insurers could potentially use to price the insurance. I derive lower bounds that suggest individuals would need to be willing to pay at least a 75% markup in order to generate the existence of a private unemployment insurance market, far exceeding willingness-to-pay estimates. I derive semi-parametric point estimates of this markup in excess of 300%. This suggests private information about future job loss provides a micro-foundation for the absence of a private unemployment insurance market.Link

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Taxes: Price of Civilization or Tribute to Leviathan?

Taxes: Price of Civilization or Tribute to Leviathan? Lant Pritchett, August 2015, Paper. “There are two dominant narratives about taxation. One is taxes are the “price we pay for a civilized society” (Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.). In this view taxes are not a necessary evil (as in the pairing of “death and taxes”) but a positive good as more taxes buy more “civilization.” The other view is that taxes are “tribute to Leviathan”—a pure involuntary extraction from those engaged in economic production to those who control coercive power producing no reciprocal benefit. In this view taxes are a bane of the civilized. We consider the question of taxes as price versus tribute...” Link

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