Found 472 article(s) in category 'Fiscal Policy'

Tax Incentives for Affordable Housing: The Low Income Housing Tax Credit

Tax Incentives for Affordable Housing: The Low Income Housing Tax Credit. Mihir Desai, Monica Singhal, January 2010, Paper. “The Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) represents a novel tax expenditure program that employs ‘investable’ tax credits to spur production of low-income rental housing. While it has grown into the largest source of new affordable housing in the U.S. and its structure is now being replicated in other programs, the LIHTC has also drawn skepticism and calls for its repeal. We provide estimates of tax expenditures under this program and discuss pricing, efficiency, and distributional effects of the program …” Link

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Large changes in fiscal policy: taxes versus spending

Large changes in fiscal policy: taxes versus spending. Alberto Alesina, October 2009, Paper. “We examine the evidence on episodes of large stances in fiscal policy, both in cases of fiscal stimuli and in that of fiscal adjustments in OECD countries from 1970 to 2007. Fiscal stimuli based upon tax cuts are more likely to increase growth than those based upon spending increases. As for fiscal adjustments those based upon spending cuts and no tax increases are more likely to reduce deficits and debt over GDP ratios than those based upon tax increases…” Link

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Optimal Taxation in Theory and Practice

Optimal Taxation in Theory and Practice. N. Gregory Mankiw, Matthew Weinzierl, Danny Yagan, June 2009, Paper. “We highlight and explain eight lessons from optimal tax theory and compare them to the last few decades of OECD tax policy. As recommended by theory, top marginal income tax rates have declined, marginal income tax schedules have flattened, redistribution has risen with income inequality, and commodity taxes are more uniform and are typically assessed on final goods. However, trends in capital taxation are mixed, and capital income tax rates remain well above the zero level recommended by theory…” Link 

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Here We Go Again

Here We Go Again. Ricardo Hausmann, Spring 2009, Opinion.  “Just when Latin America seemed to have overcome its chronic boom-bust cycles, the implosion on Wall Street raised new worries about instability. This time it was supposed to be different. Even as the world economy spiraled into a free fall, Latin America seemed not only poised to break the boom-bust cycle of the previous three decades—but to survive the debacle of 2008. With the economic expansion that started in 2003, the region looked stronger than it had ever been, thanks largely to the structural reforms enacted as a result of previous crises…” Link

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Credit Constraints, Cyclical Fiscal Policy and Industry Growth

Credit Constraints, Cyclical Fiscal Policy and Industry Growth. Philippe Aghion, March 2009, Paper. “This paper evaluates whether the cyclical pattern of fiscal policy can affect growth. We first build a simple endogenous growth model where entrepreneurs can invest either in short-run projects or in long-term growth enhancing projects. Long-term projects involve a liquidity risk which credit constrained firms try to overcome by borrowing on the basis of their short-run profits. By increasing firms’ market size in recessions, a countercyclical fiscal policy will boost investment in productivity-enhancing long-term…” Link

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When Does Domestic Saving Matter for Economic Growth?

When Does Domestic Saving Matter for Economic Growth? Philippe Aghion and Diego Comin, January 4, 2009, Paper. “Can a country grow faster by saving more? We address this question both theoretically and empirically. In our theoretical model, growth results from innovations that allow local sectors to catch up with frontier technology. In poor countries, catching up requires the cooperation of a foreign investor who is familiar with the frontier technology and a domestic entrepreneur who is familiar with local conditions…” Link

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Comment: Policymaking Insights from Behavioral Economics

Comment: Policymaking Insights from Behavioral Economics. David Laibson, 2009, Opinion. “Annamaria Lusardi’s paper is a wonderful summary of what is known about financial literacy and financial decisionmaking. I strongly recommend that anyone who is thinking about household savings behavior or savings policy read her paper. It emphasizes the recent findings that Lusardi and her coauthors have generated: financial illiteracy is an important contributor to suboptimal investment choicesMy comments cover four topics. First, I discuss the classical economic argument that economic choices might be sophisticated…” Link

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The Political Economy of Tax Policy

The Political Economy of Tax Policy, James E. Alt, 2009, Book Chapter, This chapter reviews major changes in British tax-setting institutions in the past thirty years and highlights four key points about the politics of tax policy, which are summarized below. The chapter also makes policy recommendations, such as for improving scrutiny and parliamentary accountability; these are also summarized belowLink

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Investment Cycles and Sovereign Debt Overhang

Investment Cycles and Sovereign Debt Overhang. Aguiar, Mark, Manuel Amador, and Gita Gopinath, 2009, Paper. “We characterize optimal taxation of foreign capital and optimal sovereign debt policy in a small open economy where the government cannot commit to policy, seeks to insure a risk-averse domestic constituency, and is more impatient than the market. Optimal policy generates long-run cycles in both sovereign debt and foreign direct investment in an environment in which the first best capital stock is a constant. The expected tax on capital endogenously varies with the state of the economy, and investment is distorted…” Link

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This Bailout Doesn’t Pay Dividends

This Bailout Doesn’t Pay Dividends. Jeremy Stein, David Scharfstein, October 21, 2008, Article. “On Oct. 13, the chief executives of nine large American banks were called to a meeting at the Treasury Department. At the meeting, Secretary Henry Paulson offered them $125 billion from the federal government in exchange for shares of preferred stock. The chief executives accepted his terms. In some accounts of the meeting, Secretary Paulson is described as playing the role of the Godfather, making the banks an offer they could not refuse. But in one important respect, he was more Santa Claus than…” (May require user account or purchase) Link

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