Found 1287 article(s) in category 'Economic Growth'

The Economics of Place-Making Policies

The Economics of Place-Making Policies. Edward Glaeser, Joshua Gottlieb, October 2008, Paper. “Should the national government undertake policies aimed at strengthening the economies of particular localities or regions? Agglomeration economies and human capital spillovers suggest that such policies could enhance welfare. However, the mere existence of agglomeration externalities does not indicate which places should be subsidized. Without a better understanding of nonlinearities in these externalities, any government spatial policy is as likely to reduce as to increase welfare. Transportation spending has historically done…” Link

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South Africa’s export predicament

South Africa’s export predicament. Ricardo Hausmann, September 17, 2008, Paper. “Using South Africa as an example, this article explores how the structure of production affects export diversification and economic growth. We show that the lagging process of structural transformation is part of the explanation for stagnant exports per capita in South Africa over the past 40 years. This slow structural transformation is shown to be a consequence in part of the peripheral nature of South Africa’s productive capabilities…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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Policymaking for Posterity

Policymaking for Posterity. Lawrence Summer, Richard Zeckhauser, September 2008, Paper. “Policymaking for posterity involves current decisions with distant consequences. Contrary to conventional prescriptions, we conclude that the greater wealth of future generations may strengthen the case for preserving environmental amenities; lower discount rates should be applied to the far future, and special effort should be made to avoid actions that impose costs on future generations. — Posterity brings great uncertainties. Even massive losses, such as human extinction, however, do not merit infinite negative utility. Given learning…” Link

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In search of the chains that hold Brazil back

In search of the chains that hold Brazil back, Ricardo Hausmann, September 2008, Paper, This paper performs a Growth Diagnostic for Brazil. It shows that many aspects of the Brazilian economy have been improving including the macro picture, educational progress and the external front. Moreover, Brazil has many productive possibilities and high-return investments. Yet growth is hampered because of a relatively old-fashioned problem that has been solved in many other countries in the region: creating a financially viable state that does not over-borrow, over-tax or under-invest. We show that domestic saving is the binding constraint on growth and that it has a fiscal cause. Although things are trending in the right direction, the challenge is to exploit the current good times to create the fiscal basis for a sustained growth acceleration. Link

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Growth Diagnostic: Peru

Growth Diagnostic: Peru, Ricardo Hausmann, September  2008, Paper, This paper presents a growth diagnostic exercise for Peru. It notes that although Peru has recently enjoyed high rates of economic growth, this growth is actually a recovery from a significant and sustained growth collapse that began in the 1970s. Income per capita has barely recovered to its historical peak, despite significant improvements in education, infrastructure, the financial system, political stability, institutional quality, and macroeconomic sustainability. The growth collapse was caused by a decline in export earnings due to the fall in international prices and an inadequate investment regime in export activities that led to a fall in market shareLink


Doing Growth Diagnostics in Practice: A ‘Mindbook’

Doing Growth Diagnostics in Practice: A ‘Mindbook’, Ricardo Hausmann, September 2008, Paper, This paper systematizes the implementation of the Growth Diagnostics framework. It aims to give the meta-steps that a persuasive growth diagnosis should have, and elaborates on the strategies and methods that may be used. Rather than a step-by-step instruction manual or handbook, this paper is meant to be a ‘mindbook’, suggesting how to think about the problem of identifying a country’s constraints to growth. Link

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Achieving Export-Led Growth in Colombia

Achieving Export-Led Growth in Colombia, Ricardo Hausmann, September 1, 2008, Paper, The purpose of this paper is to analyze Colombia’s experiences with and opportunities for export led growth. We first review Colombia’s growth and export performance over the past 30 years and find that the country is indeed facing an export challenge. We then go on to develop new metrics and apply them to Colombia’s export challenge. Link

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Assessing the Importance of Financial Literacy

Assessing the Importance of Financial Literacy. Shawn Cole, September 2008, Paper. “Financial decisions can be difficult. Comparing savings or borrowing options with different interest rates and term structures can be difficult for those without financial savvy—and even a knowledgeable individual may need to rely on calculators or spreadsheets to make truly informed decisions. Yet, many households are not knowledgeable, and often receive little assistance when making these decisions. Moreover, unlike the decision to visit a restaurant or purchase a particular car, customers may not receive useful feedback on the value…Link

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Shackled to the Past: The Causes and Consequences of Africa’s Slave Trades

Shackled to the Past: The Causes and Consequences of Africa’s Slave Trades. Nathan Nunn, August 2008, Book Chapter.“This chapter uses statistical techniques to assess whether there is evidence that Africa’s slave trades had a detrimental impact on long-term economic development. This is done by first constructing estimates of the number of slaves taken from each region of Africa between 1400 and 1900. The estimates are constructed by combining data on the number of slaves shipped from African ports with data from historical records reporting the ethnic identities of slaves taken from Africa…” Link

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The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development. Edward Glaeser, August 2008, Paper. “Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household electricity usage. We find that the lowest emissions areas are generally in California and that the highest emissions…” Link

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