Found 323 article(s) in category 'Q2: Inequality?'

Understanding the Political Economy of the Eurozone Crisis: A Political Scientist’s Guide

Understanding the political economy of the Eurozone crisis: A Political Scientist’s Guide. Jeffry Frieden, 2017, Paper, “The Eurozone crisis constitutes a grave challenge to European integration. This essay presents an overview of the causes of the crisis, and analyzes why has it been so difficult to resolve. It focuses on how responses to the crisis were shaped by distributive conflicts both among and within countries. On the international level, debtor and creditor countries have fought over the distribution of responsibility for the accumulated debt; countries with current account surpluses and deficits have fought over who should implement the policies necessary to reduce the current account imbalances.Link

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Entrepreneurship and growth: lessons from an intellectual journey

Entrepreneurship and growth: lessons from an intellectual journey. Philippe Aghion, January 2017, Paper, “This lecture is the story of an intellectual journey, that of elaborating a new—Schumpeterian—theory of economic growth. A theory where (i) growth is generated by innovative entrepreneurs; (ii) entrepreneurial investments respond to incentives that are themselves shaped by economic policies and institutions; (iii) new innovations replace old technologies: in other words, growth involves creative destruction and therefore involves a permanent conflict between incumbents and new entrants. First, we motivate and then lay out the Schumpeterian paradigm and point to a set of empirical predictions which distinguish this paradigm from other growth models. Second, we raise four debates on which the Schumpeterian approach sheds new light: the middle income trap, secular stagnation, the recent rise in top income inequality, and firm dynamics. Third and last, we show how the paradigm can be used to think (or rethink) about growth policy design.Link

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Has Latin American Inequality Changed Direction?

Has Latin American Inequality Changed Direction? Jeffrey Williamson, 2017, Book, “On the initiative of Professors Luis Bértola and Jeffrey Williamson, the Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL), together with the IDB’s Social Management, the ECLAC, and the World Bank, organized a regional conference in December 2014 with the motto “Latin American Inequality in the Long Run.” Buenos Aires hosted worldwide experts to identify the historical roots of the problem and to contribute proposals to prevent inequality from remaining the region’s distinguishing feature.Link

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The Impact of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility II: County-Level Estimate

The Impact of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility II: County-Level Estimate. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, 2016, Paper, “We characterize the effects of neighborhoods on children’s earnings and other outcomes in adulthood by studying more than five million families who move across counties in the U.S. We identify the causal effect of growing up in every county in the U.S. by estimating a fixed effects model identified from families who move across counties with children of different ages. We use these estimates to quantify the size of place effects, construct optimal forecasts of the causal effect for each place, and study the characteristics of places that cause higher (and lower) economic outcomes.Link

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‘Acting Wife’: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments

‘Acting Wife’: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments. Amanda Pallais, December 2016, Paper, “Do single women avoid career-enhancing actions because these actions could signal personality traits (like ambition) that are undesirable in the marriage market? We answer this question through two field experiments in an elite U.S. MBA program. Newly-admitted MBA students filled out a questionnaire on job preferences and personality traits to be used by the career center in internship placement; randomly selected students thought their answers would be shared with classmates. When they believed their classmates would not see their responses, single and non-single women answered similarly. However, single women reported desired salaries $18,000 lower and being willing to travel seven fewer days per month and work four fewer hours per week when they expected classmates would see their answers.Link

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A Country Divided: The Growing Opportunity Gap in America

A Country Divided: The Growing Opportunity Gap in America. Robert Putnam, 2016, Paper, “Are the destinies of children from poor and wealthy families diverging? This paper explains why this is the question to ask if we wish to study equality of opportunity in America today. Drawing on the research behind Robert Putnam’s (2015) Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis, we show that, since the 1970s, children in the top-third and the bottom-third of the socioeconomic hierarchy have sharply diverged on factors predicting life success. This gaping “opportunity gap” augurs a collapse of social mobility in the decades ahead. Given the causes of the opportunity gap, we explore promising policy options for restoring equality of opportunity in America.Link

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Harvard Hosts Forum on Feeding the Planet During Climate Change

Harvard Hosts Forum on Feeding the Planet During Climate Change. Calestous Juma, December 19, 2016, Video, “A forum on “The Future of Food, Feeding the Planet During Climate Change” took place at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and was presented jointly with the Public Radio International program, “The World,” and WGBH on Tuesday, December 13.Link

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Beliefs about Gender

Beliefs about Gender. Andrei Shleifer, December 2016, Paper, “We conduct a laboratory experiment on the determinants of beliefs about own and others’ ability across different domains. A preliminary look at the data points to two distinct forces: miscalibration in estimating performance depending on the difficulty of tasks and gender stereotypes. We develop a theoretical model that separates these forces and apply it to analyze a large laboratory dataset in which participants estimate their own and a partner’s performance on questions across six subjects: arts and literature, emotion recognition, business, verbal reasoning, mathematics, and sports.Link

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Did declining social mobility cause Trump’s rise? In a word, no.

Did declining social mobility cause Trump’s rise? In a word, no. Filipe Campante, David Yanagizawa-Drott, December 9, 2016, Opinion, “There has been a heated debate over the role that that economic factors played in the improbable journey that took Donald Trump all the way to the presidency. “Economic anxiety” is the umbrella term that many pundits have seized on to explain what drove a substantial number of (white) working-class voters to Trump. While economic anxiety is a somewhat vague concept, a decrease in prospects for social mobility is part of the story many have in mind.Link

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