Found 289 article(s) in category 'Q2: Inequality?'

Understanding the Socioeconomic Gradient in Disability Insurance Receipt

Understanding the Socioeconomic Gradient in Disability Insurance Receipt. David Cutler, August 3, 2016, Paper, “There is a well-known socioeconomic gradient in disability insurance receipt. As Figure 1 shows, 9.0% of people aged 50-52 with a high school degree or less receive Social Security Disability Insurance or Supplemental Security Insurance, compared to 4.3% of those with some college or more.  As people age, the gap between the more and less educated expands. Between the low 50s and the low 60s, SSDI/SSI receipt rises by 6.2 percentage points among the less educated, compared to only 2.4 percentage points among the better educated. The result is that one in six people with a high school degree or less is receiving SSDI/SSI by age 62, compared to one in fifteen people with some college education. Understanding why disability insurance receipt is so tilted to the less educated is key to evaluating the economic importance of disability insurance as well as forecasting future trends.Link

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Multilevel Geographies of Poverty in India

Multilevel Geographies of Poverty in India. S V Subramanian, August 2016, Paper,  “Since the economic reforms in India in 1991, there has been a proliferation of studies examining trends of economic development and poverty across the country. To date, studies have used single-level analyses with aggregated data either at the state level or, less commonly, at the region and district levels. This is the first comprehensive and empirical quantification of the relative importance of multiple geographic levels in shaping poverty distribution in India. We used multilevel logistic models to partition variation in poverty by levels of states, regions, districts, villages, and households. We also mapped the residuals at the state, region and district levels to visualize the geography of poverty. We used data on 35 states, 88 regions, 623 districts, 25,390 villages and 202,250 households from the National Sample Survey in years 2009–10 and 2011–12.Link

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Econometric Tools for Analyzing Moment Inequalities

Econometric Tools for Analyzing Moment Inequalities. Ariel Pakes, August 2016, Paper, “Griliches Lectures, Kyoto. Adjust for Different Variance of Different Moments. Assume that a consistent estimator of the diagonal matrix consisting of the square root of the moments evaluated at each θ is available. Call that estimate ˆDJ(θ)(a diagonal matrix).Link

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Women, Democracy, and the State

Women, Democracy, and the State. Jocelyn Viterna, 2016, Book Chapter, “What role do states and democracies play in development? Although many scholars have addressed this question, fewer have done so with respect to women. In this chapter, we argue that renewed attention to the relationship between states and women would …Link

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Transnational Social Protection: Setting the Agenda

Transnational Social Protection: Setting the Agenda, Jocelyn Viterna, August 2016, Paper, “In todays’ world, more than 220 million people live in a country that is not their own.  Nevertheless, the provision of social welfare is primarily carried out by nations. How are people on the move protected and provided for in the contemporary global context? Have institutional sources of social welfare begun to cross borders to meet the needs of individuals who live transnational lives? This introductory paper proposes a transnational social protection (TSP) research agenda designed to map the kinds of protections that exist for people on the move, determine how these protections travel across borders, and analyze variations in access to these protections. The paper defines TSP; introduces the heuristic tool of a “resource environment” to map and analyze variations in TSP over time, through space, and across individuals; and provides empirical examples demonstrating the centrality of TSP for scholars of states, social welfare, development, and migration.Link

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Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, August 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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Creating Mobility from Poverty

Creating Mobility from Poverty. David Ellwood, August 2016, Paper, “Mobility is the American dream. It is the foundational promise of the nation: through initiative and hard work, anyone can rise from poverty and succeed. Both anecdote and scholarship show unequivocally that at least some people from all walks of life do get ahead and thrive. The American dream also contains an implicit assumption that mobility is readily available regardless of the circumstances of one’s birth, and that such mobility is more common in the United States than in other nations. Sadly, research shows that the United States is not particularly strong on upward mobility for those born at the lower end of the income distribution.Link

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How Rigid is the Wealth Structure and Why? A Life-Course Perspective on Intergenerational Correlations in Wealth

How Rigid is the Wealth Structure and Why? A Life-Course Perspective on Intergenerational Correlations in Wealth. Alexandra Killewald, July 2016, Paper, “Inequality in family wealth is high and rising. Yet we know little about how much and how wealth inequality is maintained across generations. We argue that a long-term, life-course perspective reflective of wealth’s cumulative nature is crucial to understand the extent and channels of wealth reproduction across generations. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics that span nearly half a century, we attend to the life-cycle patterns of wealth attainment to reveal that intergenerational wealth correlations rise with age and are higher than previously believed. Furthermore, grandparental wealth is a unique predictor of grandchildren’s wealth, above and beyond the role of parental wealth, suggesting that a focus on only parentchild dyads underestimates the importance of family wealth lineages.” Link

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How Neoclassical Economics Corrupted Business Schools, Corporations, and the Economy

How Neoclassical Economics Corrupted Business Schools, Corporations, and the Economy. Rakesh Khurana, July 14, 2016, Opinion, “Since the mid-1970’s neoclassical economic theory has dominated business school thinking and teaching in dealing with business ethics. Neoclassical economic theory employs an incorrect model of human behavior that treats managers as selfish maximizers of personal wealth and power. This model, often referred to as Homo economicus, implies that a firm’s board of directors can best further stockholders’ interests by (a) selecting managerial personnel who are focussed virtually exclusively on personal financial gain, and (b) inducing them to act as agents of the stockholders by devising incentives that minimize the difference between the financial returns to stockholders and the firm’s leading managers.Link

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How Japan and the US Can Reduce the Stress of Aging

How Japan and the US Can Reduce the Stress of Aging. Claudia Goldin, July 2016, Paper, “The Japanese are becoming older. Americans are also becoming older. Demographic stress in Japan, measured by the dependency ratio (DR), is currently about 0.64. In the immediate pre-WWII era it was even higher because Japan’s total fertility rate (TFR) was in the 4 to 5 range. As the TFR began to decline in the post-WWII era, the DR fell and hit a nadir of 0.44 in 1990. But further declining fertility and rising life expectancy caused the DR to shoot up after 1995.Link

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