Found 298 article(s) in category 'Q2: Inequality?'

The Impact of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility II: County-Level Estimate

The Impact of Neighborhoods on Intergenerational Mobility II: County-Level Estimate. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, 2016, Paper, “We characterize the effects of neighborhoods on children’s earnings and other outcomes in adulthood by studying more than five million families who move across counties in the U.S. We identify the causal effect of growing up in every county in the U.S. by estimating a fixed effects model identified from families who move across counties with children of different ages. We use these estimates to quantify the size of place effects, construct optimal forecasts of the causal effect for each place, and study the characteristics of places that cause higher (and lower) economic outcomes.Link

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‘Acting Wife’: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments

‘Acting Wife’: Marriage Market Incentives and Labor Market Investments. Amanda Pallais, December 2016, Paper, “Do single women avoid career-enhancing actions because these actions could signal personality traits (like ambition) that are undesirable in the marriage market? We answer this question through two field experiments in an elite U.S. MBA program. Newly-admitted MBA students filled out a questionnaire on job preferences and personality traits to be used by the career center in internship placement; randomly selected students thought their answers would be shared with classmates. When they believed their classmates would not see their responses, single and non-single women answered similarly. However, single women reported desired salaries $18,000 lower and being willing to travel seven fewer days per month and work four fewer hours per week when they expected classmates would see their answers.Link

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A Country Divided: The Growing Opportunity Gap in America

A Country Divided: The Growing Opportunity Gap in America. Robert Putnam, 2016, Paper, “Are the destinies of children from poor and wealthy families diverging? This paper explains why this is the question to ask if we wish to study equality of opportunity in America today. Drawing on the research behind Robert Putnam’s (2015) Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis, we show that, since the 1970s, children in the top-third and the bottom-third of the socioeconomic hierarchy have sharply diverged on factors predicting life success. This gaping “opportunity gap” augurs a collapse of social mobility in the decades ahead. Given the causes of the opportunity gap, we explore promising policy options for restoring equality of opportunity in America.Link

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Harvard Hosts Forum on Feeding the Planet During Climate Change

Harvard Hosts Forum on Feeding the Planet During Climate Change. Calestous Juma, December 19, 2016, Video, “A forum on “The Future of Food, Feeding the Planet During Climate Change” took place at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and was presented jointly with the Public Radio International program, “The World,” and WGBH on Tuesday, December 13.Link

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Beliefs about Gender

Beliefs about Gender. Andrei Shleifer, December 2016, Paper, “We conduct a laboratory experiment on the determinants of beliefs about own and others’ ability across different domains. A preliminary look at the data points to two distinct forces: miscalibration in estimating performance depending on the difficulty of tasks and gender stereotypes. We develop a theoretical model that separates these forces and apply it to analyze a large laboratory dataset in which participants estimate their own and a partner’s performance on questions across six subjects: arts and literature, emotion recognition, business, verbal reasoning, mathematics, and sports.Link

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Did declining social mobility cause Trump’s rise? In a word, no.

Did declining social mobility cause Trump’s rise? In a word, no. Filipe Campante, David Yanagizawa-Drott, December 9, 2016, Opinion, “There has been a heated debate over the role that that economic factors played in the improbable journey that took Donald Trump all the way to the presidency. “Economic anxiety” is the umbrella term that many pundits have seized on to explain what drove a substantial number of (white) working-class voters to Trump. While economic anxiety is a somewhat vague concept, a decrease in prospects for social mobility is part of the story many have in mind.Link

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Globalization and Wage Inequality

Globalization and Wage Inequality. Elhanan Helpman, December 9, 2016, Paper, “Globalization has been blamed for rising inequality in rich and poor countries. Yet the views of many protagonists in this debate are not based on evidence. To help form an evidence-based opinion, I review in this paper the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between globalization and wage inequality. While the initial analysis that started in the early 1990s focused on a particular mechanism that links trade to wages, subsequent studies have considered several other channels, and the quantitative assessment of the size of these influences has been carried out in multiple studies. Building on this research, I conclude that trade played an appreciable role in increasing wage inequality, but that its cumulative effect has been modest, and that globalization does not explain the preponderance of the rise in wage inequality within countries.Link

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Fixing Discrimination in Online Marketplaces

Fixing Discrimination in Online Marketplaces. Michael Luca, December 2016, Paper, “In the late 1980s, law professors Ian Ayres and Peter Siegelman set out to learn whether blacks and women got the same deals as white men when buying a new car. They trained 38 people—some white and some black, some male and some female—to negotiate a purchase using a fixed script, and uncovered disturbing differences: Across 153 dealerships, black and female buyers paid more for the same cars than white men did, with black women paying the most—on average, nearly $900 more than white men. Although the findings weren’t a surprise to most people, least of all to blacks and women, they were a compelling demonstration of just how discriminatory markets can be.Link

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The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility Since 1940

The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility Since 1940. Raj Chetty, 2016, Paper, “One of the defining features of the “American Dream” is the ideal that children have a higher standard of living than their parents. We assess whether the U.S. is living up to this ideal by estimating rates of “absolute income mobility” – the fraction of children who earn more than their parents – since 1940.Link

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Improving Opportunities for Economic Mobility

Improving Opportunities for Economic Mobility. Raj Chetty, Fall 2016, Paper, “The American dream is a complicated concept, but I’d like to distill it down to a simple statistic that we are able to measure with data: the probability that a child born to parents in the bottom fifth of the income distribution makes the leap all the way to the top fifth of the income distribution.Link

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