Found 312 article(s) in category 'Q2: Inequality?'

Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does it Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps?

Closing the Gender Gap in Education: Does it Foretell the Closing of the Employment, Marriage, and Motherhood Gaps? Ricardo Hausmann, April 2011, Paper. “In this paper we examine several dimensions of gender disparity for a sample of 40 countries using micro-level data. We start by documenting the reversal of the gender education gap and ranking countries by the year in which it reversed. Then we turn to an analysis of the state of other gaps facing women: we compare men and women’s labor force participation (the labor force participation gap), married and single women’s labor force participation (the marriage gap), and…” Link

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Improving Financial Access for Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries

Improving Financial Access for Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries. Shawn Cole, March 2011 , Paper, “Providing incentives for loan officers is difficult as banks seek to both increase lending volume whilst minimizing risk. Incentives play an important role in emerging markets where high information costs and the limited enforceability of debt contracts means that risk management relies on the expertise of the bank’s front-line employees.” Link

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Political Instability: Effects on Financial Development, Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality

Political Instability: Effects on Financial Development, Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality. Mark Roe and Jordan Siegel, February 3, 2011, Paper. “We here bring forward strong evidence that political instability impedes financial development, with its variation a primary determinant of differences in financial development around the world. As such, it needs to be added to the short list of major determinants of financial development. First, structural conditions first postulated by Engerman and Sokoloff (2002) as generating long-term inequality are shown here empirically to be exogenous determinants of political instability…” Link

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Does Economic Inequality Cause Crises?

Does Economic Inequality Cause Crises? Edward Glaeser, December 14, 2010, Paper. “Did inequality cause the recent housing and financial crisis? For decades, a growing literature has tried to establish links between inequality and adverse outcomes, such as low economic growth,weak social cohesion and mortality and, most recently, financial crises. If true, these arguments would provide even more reasons to worry about our unequal income distribution. If false, we should still worry about income inequality, because in a just society everyone should have a decent standard of living and the opportunity to succeed. Empirically, it is true…” Link

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Gender-Based Taxation and the Division of Family Chores

Gender-Based Taxation and the Division of Family Chores. Alberto Alesina, September 2010, Paper. “Gender-Based Taxation (GBT) satisfies Ramsey’s rule of optimality because it taxes at a lower rate the more elastic labor supply of women. This holds when different elasticities between men and women are taken as exogenous. We study GBT in a model in which labor supply elasticities emerge endogenously from the bargained allocation of goods and time in the family…” Link

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Putting the Co in Education: Timing, Reasons, and Consequences of College Coeducation from 1835 to the Present

Putting the Co in Education: Timing, Reasons, and Consequences of College Coeducation from 1835 to the Present. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence Katz, August 2010, Paper. “The history of coeducation in U.S. higher education is explored through an analysis of a database containing information on all institutions offering four-year undergraduate degrees that operated in 1897, 1924, 1934, or 1980, most of which still exist today. These data reveal surprises about the timing of coeducation and the reasons for its increase. Rather than being episodic and caused by financial pressures brought about by wars and recessions, the process of…” Link

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Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India

Do Traditional Institutions Constrain Female Entrepreneurship? A Field Experiment on Business Training in India, Rohini Pande, May 2010, Paper, “What constrains the entrepreneurial choices of poor women? Do traditional institutions pose unique barriers to business growth and profitability for female-run enterprises? The explosion of microfinance programs, which typically target poor female entrepreneurs, has drawn attention to these questions. Indeed, one view is that inadequate access to credit prevents women from under- taking high-return business activities. However, one recent empirical study finds low returns to capital in female-run micro-enterprises.” Link

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Spreading the Wealth Around: Reflections Inspired by Joe the Plumber

Spreading the Wealth Around: Reflections Inspired by Joe the Plumber. N. Gregory Mankiw, March 2010, Paper. “This essay discusses the policy debate concerning optimal taxation and the distribution of income. It begins with a brief overview of trends in income inequality, the leading hypothesis to explain these trends, and the distribution of the tax burden. It then considers the framework that economists use to address the normative problem of designing tax systems. The conventional utilitarian approach is found to be wanting, as it leads to prescriptions that conflict with many individuals’ moral intuitions. The essay…” Link

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Global Imbalances and the Financial Crisis: Products of Common Causes

Global Imbalances and the Financial Crisis: Products of Common Causes, Kenneth Rogoff, October 2009, Paper. “Until the outbreak of financial crisis in August 2007, the mid-2000s was a period of strong economic performance throughout the world. Economic growth was generally robust; inflation generally low; international trade and especially financial flows expanded; and the emerging and developing world experienced widespread progress and a notable absence of crises. This apparently favorable equilibrium was underpinned, however, by three trends that appeared increasingly unsustainable as time went by…” Link

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Inequality in Cities

Inequality in CitiesEdward Glaeser, Kristina Tobio, October 1, 2009, Paper. “Much of the inequality literature has focused on national inequality, but local inequality is also important. Crime rates are higher in more unequal cities; people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is a negative association between local inequality and the growth of city-level income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills. High levels of mobility across cities mean that city-level inequality should not be studied with the same analytical tools used…” May require purchase or user account. Link

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