Found 314 article(s) in category 'Q2: Inequality?'

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes

Charter Schools and Labor Market Outcomes. Roland Fryer, August 2016, Paper, “We estimate the impact of charter schools on early-life labor market outcomes using administrative data from Texas. We find that, at the mean, charter schools have no impact on test scores and a negative impact on earnings. No Excuses charter schools increase test scores and four-year college enrollment, but have a small and statistically insignificant impact on earnings, while other types of charter schools decrease test scores, four-year college enrollment, and earnings. Moving to school-level estimates, we find that charter schools that decrease test scores also tend to decrease earnings, while charter schools that increase test scores have no discernible impact on earnings. In contrast, high school graduation effects are predictive of earnings effects throughout the distribution of school quality. The paper concludes with a speculative discussion of what might explain our set of facts.Link

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Creating Mobility from Poverty

Creating Mobility from Poverty. David Ellwood, August 2016, Paper, “Mobility is the American dream. It is the foundational promise of the nation: through initiative and hard work, anyone can rise from poverty and succeed. Both anecdote and scholarship show unequivocally that at least some people from all walks of life do get ahead and thrive. The American dream also contains an implicit assumption that mobility is readily available regardless of the circumstances of one’s birth, and that such mobility is more common in the United States than in other nations. Sadly, research shows that the United States is not particularly strong on upward mobility for those born at the lower end of the income distribution.Link

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How Rigid is the Wealth Structure and Why? A Life-Course Perspective on Intergenerational Correlations in Wealth

How Rigid is the Wealth Structure and Why? A Life-Course Perspective on Intergenerational Correlations in Wealth. Alexandra Killewald, July 2016, Paper, “Inequality in family wealth is high and rising. Yet we know little about how much and how wealth inequality is maintained across generations. We argue that a long-term, life-course perspective reflective of wealth’s cumulative nature is crucial to understand the extent and channels of wealth reproduction across generations. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics that span nearly half a century, we attend to the life-cycle patterns of wealth attainment to reveal that intergenerational wealth correlations rise with age and are higher than previously believed. Furthermore, grandparental wealth is a unique predictor of grandchildren’s wealth, above and beyond the role of parental wealth, suggesting that a focus on only parentchild dyads underestimates the importance of family wealth lineages.” Link

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How Neoclassical Economics Corrupted Business Schools, Corporations, and the Economy

How Neoclassical Economics Corrupted Business Schools, Corporations, and the Economy. Rakesh Khurana, July 14, 2016, Opinion, “Since the mid-1970’s neoclassical economic theory has dominated business school thinking and teaching in dealing with business ethics. Neoclassical economic theory employs an incorrect model of human behavior that treats managers as selfish maximizers of personal wealth and power. This model, often referred to as Homo economicus, implies that a firm’s board of directors can best further stockholders’ interests by (a) selecting managerial personnel who are focussed virtually exclusively on personal financial gain, and (b) inducing them to act as agents of the stockholders by devising incentives that minimize the difference between the financial returns to stockholders and the firm’s leading managers.Link

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How Japan and the US Can Reduce the Stress of Aging

How Japan and the US Can Reduce the Stress of Aging. Claudia Goldin, July 2016, Paper, “The Japanese are becoming older. Americans are also becoming older. Demographic stress in Japan, measured by the dependency ratio (DR), is currently about 0.64. In the immediate pre-WWII era it was even higher because Japan’s total fertility rate (TFR) was in the 4 to 5 range. As the TFR began to decline in the post-WWII era, the DR fell and hit a nadir of 0.44 in 1990. But further declining fertility and rising life expectancy caused the DR to shoot up after 1995.Link

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Attention to Distribution in U.S. Regulatory Analyses

Attention to Distribution in U.S. Regulatory Analyses. Lisa Robinson, James Hammitt, Richard Zeckhauser, Summer 2016, Paper, “Scholars, decision makers, interest groups, and other concerned citizens are often interested in the distribution of regulatory impacts. To what extent does a regulation benefit or harm those who have high or low incomes, are in good or poor health, are more or less vulnerable to disease, or are very young or very old? Does the regulation disproportionately affect members of minority or other disadvantaged groups? Determining whether and how to address these questions raises thorny normative issues about how to weigh the impacts on different groups as well as the choice of policy instruments. Yet to address these normative concerns, we first need data on impacts—data that are rarely readily available.Link

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Are Landlords Overcharging Housing Voucher Holders?

Are Landlords Overcharging Housing Voucher Holders? Matthew Desmond, June 26, 2016, Paper. “The structure of rental markets coupled with the design of the Housing Choice Voucher Program (HCVP), the largest federal housing subsidy for low-income families in the United States, provides the opportunity to overcharge voucher holders. Applying hedonic regression models to a unique data set of Milwaukee renters combined with administrative records, we find that vouchered households are charged between $51 and $68 more in monthly rent than unassisted renters in comparable units and neighborhoods. Overcharging voucher holders costs taxpayers an estimated $3.8 million each year in Milwaukee alone, the equivalent of supplying 620 additional families in that city with housing assistance. These findings suggest that the HCVP could be made more cost-effective—and therefore more expansive—if overcharging were prevented.Link

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Redistributive Implications of Open Access

Redistributive Implications of Open Access, Jennifer Hochschild, June 2016, Paper. “This article addresses the virtues of gold open access (OA) from the perspective of its impact on social science scholarly associations and their members. OA has clear and obvious virtues, including redistribution downward and outward of research findings. But it also has the potential for upward redistribution or narrowing of the realm of publication, which this author finds troubling. A central question is who will cover article processing charges. The article identifies five potential sources of the necessary funds or ways to reduce the funds that are necessary, and discusses problems with each in terms of likely gainers and losers. It also identifies two potential substantive concerns about the kinds of social science scholarship most amenable to OA. It concludes by observing that, as is often the case, an apparently narrow technological innovation opens large issues – organizationally, substantively, and even morally.Link

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The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions

The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions. Martha Chen, June 1, 2016, Paper. “Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services.Link

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The Concentration of Wealth within Family Lineages and Intergenerational Transfers

The Concentration of Wealth within Family Lineages and Intergenerational Transfers. Alexandra Killewald, 2016, Paper, “Compared to income and earnings, wealth in the United States is substantially more unequally distributed (Budría Rodríguez et al. 2002; Scholz and Levine 2004). Access to wealth is in turn associated with a wide range of outcomes, including longevity, family formation, and the educational achievement and labor market outcomes of offspring (Attanasio and Emmerson 2003; Charles, Hurst, and Killewald 2013; Conley 1999, 2001; Pfeffer 2011; Bond Huie et al. 2003; Orr 2003; Schneider 2011). Furthermore, these associations are not fully explained by standard measures of socioeconomic advantage, such as income or education. The wealth distribution is thus an important measure of the concentration of social inequality and advantage.Link

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