Found 293 article(s) in category 'Q2: Inequality?'

WHAT SHOULD WE DO ABOUT INEQUALITY?

Inequality has been rising both within and between countries in recent years. The posts collected here define the different dimensions of inequality and how they manifest, examine its causes, and discuss the extent to which we should be worried. In addition to diagnosing the problem, the posts offer policy options to address it.

Social determinants of health and the International Monetary Fund

Social determinants of health and the International Monetary Fund. S V Subramanian, June 9, 2017, Paper, “Education is considered an important social determinant of health (1, 2). Higher levels of educational attainment appear to be health-enhancing for those who have them (3), and provide intergenerational health benefits for their children (4) as well as their parents (5). Increased knowledge and skills leading to higher wages, as well as psychosocial advantages, such as social standing and control beliefs, are posited as mechanisms that link higher education and improved health (1, 2).Link

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Race, Class, Politics, and the Disappearance of Work

Race, Class, Politics, and the Disappearance of Work. Jennifer Hochschild, June 5, 2017, Paper, ““When Work Disappears” has shaped research agendas on poverty, racial hierarchy, and urban social and economic dynamics. That is a lot for one article, yet two issues warrant more analysis. They are the ways in which socially defined “race” – rather than or in combination with class – explains the impact of sustained joblessness, and the political behaviours that may emerge in response to work’s disappearance. I point to evidence showing that both race and class have independent associations with the loss of work in poor African-American communities, as well as interactive effects. In the political arena – too often neglected by sociologists studying poverty – sustained, community-wide joblessness or underemployment are associated both with withdrawal from political engagement and with the recent resurgence of right-wing populism. Even after several decades of intensive research, we have more to learn about the interactions of race, class, politics, and the disappearance of work.Link

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Challenges To Reducing Discrimination And Health Inequity Through Existing Civil Rights Laws

Challenges To Reducing Discrimination And Health Inequity Through Existing Civil Rights Laws. Amitabh Chandra, June 2017, Paper, “More than fifty years after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, health care for racial and ethnic minorities remains in many ways separate and unequal in the United States. Moreover, efforts to improve minority health care face challenges that differ from those confronted during de jure segregation. We review these challenges and examine whether stronger enforcement of existing civil rights legislation could help overcome them. We conclude that stronger enforcement of existing laws—for example, through executive orders to strengthen enforcement of the laws and congressional action to allow private individuals to bring lawsuits against providers who might have engaged in discrimination—would improve minority health care, but this approach is limited in what it can achieve.Link

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Corporate Sustainability Disclosure and Financial Performance

Corporate Sustainability Disclosure and Financial Performance. George Serafeim, 2017, Paper, “Corporate environmental and social reporting lacks the comparability across companies that is a characteristic of financial information. To address this weakness, Norges Bank Investment Management (NBIM) created analytical frameworks to measure the quality and scope of reporting relating to three focus areas: climate change, water and children’s rights. By translating information published by a global set of companies into standardized data, NBIM has constructed a dataset that can be used for analyzing and comparing companies across time and within sectors.” Link

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The Ambition-Marriage Trade-Off Too Many Single Women Face

The Ambition-Marriage Trade-Off Too Many Single Women Face. Amanda Pallais, May 8, 2017, Paper, “Even today, research shows that men still prefer female partners who are less professionally ambitious than they are. Because of this, many single women face a trade-off: Actions that lead to professional success might be viewed less favorably in the heterosexual marriage market. This trade-off can be pervasive and is not limited to big decisions like volunteering for a leadership role or asking for a promotion. Daily activities such as speaking up in meetings, taking charge of a project, working late, or even certain outfits, haircuts, and makeup can be desirable in one market and not in the other.” Link

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Currency Politics in the Developing World

Currency Politics in the Developing World. Jeffry Frieden, Spring 2017, Paper, “The exchange rate is often said to be the most important price in any economy, for it affects all other prices. Americans are not used to thinking in these terms, in part because the US economy is relatively closed, and in part because the dollar is the world’s principal reserve currency. Nonetheless, a country’s exchange rate has a powerful impact on its economic activity, and this is especially true for developing countries. Because currency policy structures a country’s economic relations with the rest of the world, it can be crucial in determining a poor country’s developmental prospects.Link

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Subsidizing Health Insurance for Low-Income Adults: Evidence from Massachusetts and Implications for Future Health Reforms

Subsidizing Health Insurance for Low-Income Adults: Evidence from Massachusetts and Implications for Future Health Reforms. Nathaniel Hendren, Mark Shepard, May 2017, Paper, “How much are low-income individuals willing to pay for health insurance? What are the implications for insurance market reforms that change government subsidies? Using administrative data from Massachusetts’ subsidized insurance exchange in 2009-2013, we exploit discontinuities in the premium subsidy schedule to estimate willingness to pay and costs of insurance among low-income adults. We obtain three main results…Link

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Politics, Academics, and Africa

Politics, Academics, and Africa. Robert Bates, 2017, Paper, “The roots of my fascination with politics and Africa run deep; so too does my need for clarity. The combination drove me into the professoriate. My research in Africa convinced me that modernization theory was wrong: The people I came to know in the field were sophisticated in their politics. Additional research convinced me that market-oriented approaches to political economy were wrong and that government intervention could lead to increases in productivity and welfare. Because neoclassical approaches are flexible, I continue to think in terms of strategy and choice and to apply them to the study of development.Link

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The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census

The Expanding Gender Earnings Gap: Evidence from the LEHD-2000 Census. Claudia Goldin, 2017, Paper, “The gender earnings gap is an expanding statistic over the lifecycle. We use the LEHD Census 2000 to understand the roles of industry, occupation, and establishment 14 years after leaving school. The gap for college graduates 26 to 39 years old expands by 34 log points, most occurring in the first 7 years. About 44 percent is due to disproportionate shifts by men into higher-earning positions, industries, and firms and about 56 percent to differential advances by gender within firms. Widening is greater for married individuals and for those in certain sectors. Non-college graduates experience less widening but with similar patterns.Link

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